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BLAIRSVILLE PAPittsburgh (/ˈpɪtsbɜːrɡ/ PITS-burg) is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Allegheny County. It is the most populous city in both Allegheny County and Western Pennsylvania, the second-most populous city in Pennsylvania after Philadelphia, and the 68th-most populous city in the U.S. with a population of 302,971 as of the 2020 census. It is the largest city of the Greater Pittsburgh metropolitan area of Western Pennsylvania; its population of 2.457 million is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, and the 26th-largest in the U.S. It is the principal city of the greater Pittsburgh–Weirton–Steubenvillle combined statistical area that extends into Ohio and West Virginia.
Pittsburgh is located in southwest Pennsylvania at the confluence of the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River, which combine to form the Ohio River.[5] Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its dominant role in the history of the U.S. steel industry, and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges.[6] The city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains led to the region being contested by the French and British empires, Virginians, Whiskey Rebels, and Civil War raiders.[7]
Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in the manufacturing of other important materials—aluminum and glass—and in the petroleum industry. Additionally, it is a leader in computing, electronics, and the automotive industry.[8] For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York City and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment; it had the most U.S. stockholders per capita.[9] Deindustrialization in the 1970s and 1980s laid off area blue-collar workers as steel and other heavy industries declined, and thousands of downtown white-collar workers also lost jobs when several Pittsburgh-based companies moved out.[10] The population dropped from a peak of 675,000 in 1950 to 370,000 in 1990. However, this rich industrial history left the area with renowned museums, medical centers,[11] parks, research centers, and a diverse cultural district.[12]
After 1990, Pittsburgh transformed into a hub for the health care, education, and technology industries.[13] Pittsburgh is home to large medical providers, including the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Allegheny Health Network, and 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh.[14] Google, Apple, Denso, Bosch, Meta, Nokia, Autodesk, Amazon, Microsoft, and IBM are among some 1,600 technology firms with a presence in the city, generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls.
Federal money has supported the research agenda. The area has served as the federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, robotics, energy research and the nuclear navy.[15] In the private sector, Pittsburgh-based PNC is the nation's fifth-largest bank, and the city is home to eight Fortune 500 companies, and six of the largest 300 U.S. law firms. RAND Corporation, BNY Mellon, Nova, FedEx, Bayer, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health have regional headquarters and offices that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.S. job growth.[16]
In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world" by Metropolis magazine.[17][18] The Economist's Global Liveability Ranking placed Pittsburgh as the most or second-most livable city in the United States in 2005, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2014, and 2018.[19][20] The region is a hub for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and energy extraction.[21]
EtymologyPittsburgh was named in 1758, by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. As Forbes was a Scotsman, he probably pronounced the name /ˈpɪtsbərə/ PITS-bər-ə (similar to Edinburgh).[22][23]
Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act:[24] "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be ... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."[25]
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations.[26][22] After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed.[22] The Pittsburg Press continued spelling the city without an h until 1921.[27]
HistoryNative AmericansMain articles: History of Pittsburgh and Name of PittsburghFor a chronological guide, see Timeline of Pittsburgh.Historical claimsFrench Empire 1669–1758British Empire 1681–1781United States 1776–presentFort Pitt Block House, built by the British in 1764, is the oldest extant structure in Pittsburgh.The area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans.[28] Shannopin's Town was an 18th-century Lenape (Delaware) town located roughly from where Penn Avenue is today, below the mouth of Two Mile Run, from 30th Street to 39th Street. According to George Croghan, the town was situated on the south bank of the Allegheny, nearly opposite what is now known as Herr's Island, in what is now the Lawrenceville neighborhood.[29]: 289 
18th centuryFurther information: Pennsylvania in the American RevolutionThe first known European to enter the region was the French explorer Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River.[30][better source needed]European pioneers, primarily Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, and later that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements.[31]
In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers.[31] During 1753–1754, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off. The French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims. The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne.[32] The British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes finally took the forks in 1758. He began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder, while the settlement was named "Pittsborough".[33]
During Pontiac's War, a loose confederation of Native American tribes laid siege to Fort Pitt in 1763; the siege was eventually lifted after Colonel Henry Bouquet defeated a portion of the besieging force at the Battle of Bushy Run. Bouquet strengthened the defenses of Fort Pitt the next year.[34][35][36][37]
During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes. By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the Penns were allowed to purchase the modern region from the Iroquois. A 1769 survey referenced the future city as the "Manor of Pittsburgh".[38] Both the Colony of Virginia and the Province of Pennsylvania claimed the region under their colonial charters until 1780, when they agreed under a federal initiative to extend the Mason–Dixon line westward, placing Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. On March 8, 1771, Bedford County, Pennsylvania was created to govern the frontier.
On April 16, 1771, the city's first civilian local government was created as Pitt Township.[39][40] William Teagarden was the first constable, and William Troop was the first clerk.[41]
Following the American Revolution, the village of Pittsburgh continued to grow. One of its earliest industries was boat building for settlers of the Ohio Country. In 1784, Thomas Viceroy completed a town plan which was approved by the Penn family attorney. Pittsburgh became a possession of Pennsylvania in 1785. The following year, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette was started, and in 1787, the Pittsburgh Academy was chartered. Unrest during the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 resulted in federal troops being sent to the area. By 1797, glass manufacture began, while the population grew to around 1,400. Settlers arrived after crossing the Appalachian Mountains or through the Great Lakes. Fort Pitt (now Pittsburgh) at the source of the Ohio River became the main base for settlers moving into the Northwest Territory.
19th centuryFurther information: Pennsylvania in the American Civil WarA historic 1857 scene of the Monongahela River in downtown Pittsburgh featuring a steamboatThe Monongahela River and its surroundings in 1857
An 1874 photograph of Pittsburgh by Otto Krebs
Burning of Union Depot during the Pittsburgh railroad strike of 1877The federal government recognizes Pittsburgh as the starting point for the Lewis and Clark Expedition.[42] Preparations began in Pittsburgh in 1803 when Meriwether Lewis purchased a keelboat that would later be used to ascend the Missouri River.[43]
The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods, stimulating American industry. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing significant quantities of iron, brass, tin, and glass. On March 18, 1816, the 46-year-old local government became a city. It was served by numerous river steamboats, that increased trading traffic on the rivers.
In the 1830s, many Welsh people from the Merthyr steelworks immigrated to the city following the aftermath of the Merthyr Rising. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh was one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. The Great Fire of Pittsburgh destroyed over a thousand buildings in 1845. The city rebuilt with the aid of Irish immigrants who came to escape the Great Famine. By 1857, Pittsburgh's 1,000 factories were consuming 22 million coal bushels yearly. Coal mining and iron manufacturing attracted waves of European immigrants to the area, the most came from Germany.
Because Pennsylvania had been established as a free state after the Revolution, enslaved African Americans sought freedom here through escape as refugees from the South, or occasionally fleeing from travelers they were serving who stayed in the city. There were active stations of the Underground Railroad in the city, and numerous refugees were documented as getting help from station agents and African-American workers in city hotels. The Drennen Slave Girl walked out of the Monongahela House in 1850, apparently to freedom.[44] The Merchant's Hotel was also a place where African-American workers would advise slaves the state was free and aid them in getting to nearby stations of the Underground Railroad.[45] Sometimes refugee slaves from the South stayed in Pittsburgh, but other times they continued North, including into Canada. Many slaves left the city and county for Canada after Congress passed the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act, as it required cooperation from law enforcement even in free states and increased penalties. From 1850 to 1860, the black population in Allegheny County dropped from 3,431 to 2,725 as people headed to more safety in Canada.[44]
The American Civil War boosted the city's economy with increased iron and armament demand by the Union. Andrew Carnegie began steel production in 1875 at the Edgar Thomson Steel Works in North Braddock, Pennsylvania, which evolved into the Carnegie Steel Company. He adopted the Bessemer process to increase production. Manufacturing was key to growth of Pittsburgh and the surrounding region. Railroad lines were built into the city along both rivers, increasing transportation access to important markets.
20th centuryBird's Eye View of Pittsburgh, 1902An aerial view of Pittsburgh in 1902[46]
Steel mills in the Strip District in 1906In 1901, J. P. Morgan and attorney Elbert H. Gary merged Carnegie Steel Company and several other companies into U.S. Steel. By 1910, Pittsburgh was the nation's eighth-largest city, accounting for between one-third and one-half of national steel output.
The Pittsburgh Agreement was subscribed in May 1918 between the Czech and Slovak nationalities, as envisioned by T. G. Masaryk, concerning the future foundation of Czechoslovakia.[47]
The city suffered severe flooding in March 1936.
The city's population swelled to more than a half million, attracting numerous European immigrants to its industrial jobs. By 1940, non-Hispanic whites were 90.6% of the city's population.[48] Pittsburgh also became a main destination of the African-American Great Migration from the rural South during the first half of the 20th century.[49] Limited initially by discrimination, some 95% percent of the men became unskilled steel workers.[50]
During World War II, demand for steel increased and area mills operated 24 hours a day to produce 95 million tons of steel for the war effort.[33] This resulted in the highest levels of air pollution in the city's almost century of industry. The city's reputation as the "arsenal of democracy"[51][52] was being overshadowed by James Parton's 1868 observation of Pittsburgh being "hell with the lid off."[53]
Following World War II, the city launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance," cleaning up the air and the rivers. The "Renaissance II" project followed in 1977, focused on cultural and neighborhood development. The industrial base continued to expand through the 1970s, but beginning in the early 1980s both the area's steel and electronics industries imploded during national industrial restructuring. There were massive layoffs from mill and plant closures.[10]
In the later 20th century, the area shifted its economic base to education, tourism, and services, largely based on healthcare/medicine, finance, and high technology such as robotics. Although Pittsburgh successfully shifted its economy and remained viable, the city's population has never rebounded to its industrial-era highs. While 680,000 people lived in the city proper in 1950, a combination of suburbanization and economic turbulence resulted in a decrease in city population, even as the metropolitan area population increased again.
21st centuryDuring the late 2000s recession, Pittsburgh was economically strong, adding jobs when most cities were losing them. It was one of the few cities in the United States to see housing property values rise. Between 2006 and 2011, the Pittsburgh metropolitan statistical area (MSA) experienced over 10% appreciation in housing prices, the highest appreciation of the largest 25 metropolitan statistical areas in the United States, with 22 of the largest 25 metropolitan statistical areas experiencing depreciations in housing values.[54]
In September 2009, the 2009 G20 Pittsburgh summit was held in Pittsburgh.[55]
GeographySee also: Pittsburgh metropolitan area § Regional identity
Downtown Pittsburgh and the Duquesne Incline from Mount WashingtonPittsburgh has an area of 58.3 square miles (151 km2), of which 55.6 square miles (144 km2) is land and 2.8 square miles (7.3 km2), or 4.75%, is water. The 80th meridian west passes directly through the city's downtown.
The city is on the Allegheny Plateau, within the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau.[56] The Downtown area (also known as the Golden Triangle) sits where the Allegheny River flows from the northeast and the Monongahela River from the southeast to form the Ohio River. The convergence is at Point State Park and is referred to as "the Point." The city extends east to include the Oakland and Shadyside sections, which are home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Chatham University, Carnegie Museum and Library, and many other educational, medical, and cultural institutions. The southern, western, and northern areas of the city are primarily residential.
Many Pittsburgh neighborhoods are steeply sloped with two-lane roads. More than a quarter of neighborhood names make reference to "hills," "heights," or similar features.[a]
The steps of Pittsburgh consist of 800 sets of outdoor public stairways with 44,645 treads and 24,090 vertical feet. They include hundreds of streets composed entirely of stairs, and many other steep streets with stairs for sidewalks.[57] Many provide vistas of the Pittsburgh area while attracting hikers and fitness walkers.[58]
Bike and walking trails have been built to border many of the city's rivers and hollows. The Great Allegheny Passage and Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Towpath connect the city directly to downtown Washington, D.C. (some 335 miles [539 km] away) with a continuous bike/running trail.
CityscapeAreasSee also: List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods, List of tallest buildings in Pittsburgh, List of City of Pittsburgh historic designations, and List of Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation Historic Landmarks
Pittsburgh's 90 distinct neighborhoodsThe city consists of the Downtown area, called the Golden Triangle,[59] and four main areas surrounding it. These surrounding areas are subdivided into distinct neighborhoods (Pittsburgh has 90 neighborhoods).[60] Relative to downtown, these areas are known as the Central, North Side/North Hills, South Side/South Hills, East End, and West End.
Golden Triangle
Downtown Pittsburgh as seen from Station SquareDowntown Pittsburgh has 30 skyscrapers, nine of which top 500 feet (150 m). The U.S. Steel Tower is the tallest, at 841 ft (256 m).[61] The Cultural District consists of a 14-block area of downtown along the Allegheny River. This district contains many theaters and arts venues and is home to a growing residential segment. Most significantly, the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust is embarking on RiverParc, a four-block mixed-use "green" community, featuring 700 residential units and multiple towers of between 20 and 30 stories. The Firstside portion of Downtown borders the Monongahela River, the historic Mon Wharf and hosts the distinctive PPG Place Gothic-style glass skyscraper complex. New condo towers have been constructed and historic office towers are converted to residential use, increasing 24-hour residents. Downtown is served by the Port Authority's light rail system and multiple bridges leading north and south.[62] It is also home to Point Park University and Duquesne University which borders Uptown.
North SideFurther information: North Side (Pittsburgh)
The Mexican War Streets neighborhoodThe North Side is home to various neighborhoods in transition. What is known today as Pittsburgh's North Side was once known as Allegheny City, and operated as a city independently of Pittsburgh until it was merged with Pittsburgh in 1907 under great protest from its citizens. The North Side is primarily composed of residential neighborhoods and is noteworthy for its well-constructed and architecturally interesting homes. Many buildings date from the 19th century and are constructed of brick or stone and adorned with decorative woodwork, ceramic tile, slate roofs and stained glass. The North Side is also home to attractions such as Acrisure Stadium, PNC Park, Carnegie Science Center, National Aviary, Andy Warhol Museum, Mattress Factory art museum, Children's Museum of Pittsburgh, Randyland, Penn Brewery, Allegheny Observatory, and Allegheny General Hospital.[63]
South SideFurther information: South Side (Pittsburgh)The South Side was once the site of railyards and associated dense, inexpensive housing for mill and railroad workers. Since the late 20th century, the city undertook a Main Street program in cooperation with the National Trust for Historic Preservation, encouraging design and landscape improvements on East Carson Street, and supporting new retail. The area has become a local Pittsburgher destination, and the value of homes in the South Side had increased in value by about 10% annually for the 10 years up to 2014.[64] East Carson Street has developed as one of the most vibrant areas of the city, packed with diverse shopping, ethnic eateries, vibrant nightlife, and live music venues.
In 1993 the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh purchased the South Side Works steel mill property. It collaborated with the community and various developers to create a master plan for a mixed-use development, to include a riverfront park, office space, housing, health-care facilities, and indoor practice fields for the Pittsburgh Steelers and Pitt Panthers. Construction began in 1998. The SouthSide Works has been open since 2005, featuring many stores, restaurants, offices, and the world headquarters for American Eagle Outfitters.[65]
East End
Shadyside neighborhoodThe East End of Pittsburgh is home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Carlow University, Chatham University, The Carnegie Institute's Museums of Art and Natural History, Phipps Conservatory, and Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall. It is also home to many parks and public spaces including Mellon Park, Westinghouse Park, Schenley Park, Frick Park, The Frick Pittsburgh, Bakery Square, and the Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium. The neighborhoods of Shadyside and Squirrel Hill are large, wealthy neighborhoods with some apartments and condos, and pedestrian-oriented shopping/business districts. Squirrel Hill is also known as the hub of Jewish life in Pittsburgh, home to approximately 20 synagogues.[66] Oakland, heavily populated by undergraduate and graduate students, is home to most of the universities, and the Petersen Events Center. The Strip District to the west along the Allegheny River is an open-air marketplace by day and a clubbing destination by night. Bloomfield is Pittsburgh's Little Italy and is known for its Italian restaurants and grocers. Lawrenceville is a revitalizing rowhouse neighborhood popular with artists and designers. The Hill District was home to photographer Charles Harris as well as various African-American jazz clubs.[67] Other East End neighborhoods include Point Breeze, Regent Square, Highland Park, Homewood, Lincoln-Lemington-Belmar, Larimer, East Hills, East Liberty, Polish Hill, Hazelwood, Garfield, Morningside, and Stanton Heights.
West EndFurther information: West End (Pittsburgh) § RegionThe West End includes Mt. Washington, with its famous view of the Downtown skyline and numerous other residential neighborhoods such as Sheraden and Elliott.
EthnicitiesMany of Pittsburgh's patchwork of neighborhoods still retain ethnic characters reflecting the city's settlement history. These include:
German: Troy Hill, Mt. Washington, and East Allegheny (Deutschtown)Italian: Brookline, Bloomfield, Morningside, OaklandHispanic/Latino: Beechview/BrooklinePolish, Austrian, Belgian, Czech, Slovak, German, Greek, Hungarian, Luxembourgish, Dutch, Romanian, Swiss, Slovenia and the northern marginal regions of Italy, Croatian, as well as northEastern France, Central European: South Side, Lawrenceville, and Polish HillLithuanian: South Side, UptownAfrican American/Multiracial African American: Hill District, Homewood, Lincoln-Lemington-Belmar, Larimer, East Hills, and HazelwoodJewish (Ashkenazi): Squirrel HillIrish: Mt. Washington, CarrickPopulation densitiesSeveral neighborhoods on the edges of the city are less urban, featuring tree-lined streets, yards and garages, with a more suburban character. Oakland, the South Side, the North Side, and the Golden Triangle are characterized by more density of housing, walking neighborhoods, and a more diverse, urban feel.
ImagesPanorama of Pittsburgh, PAPanorama of Pittsburgh from the Duquesne Incline, showing the confluence of the Allegheny (left) and the Monongahela (right) Rivers, which merge to form the Ohio River (lower left) in November 2019Panorama of Pittsburgh, PAPittsburgh seen from Mount Washington at night with the Monongahela River in the foreground in November 2015Panorama of Pittsburgh, PASkyline from Mt. Washington in June 2014Regional identityMain article: Pittsburgh metropolitan areaThe Puddler, a glass mural of an iron or steel worker in downtown PittsburghThe Puddler, a glass mural of an iron or steel worker,[68][69] memorializing Pittsburgh's industrial heritagePittsburgh falls within the borders of the NorthEastern United States as defined by multiple US Government agencies. Pittsburgh is the principal city of the Pittsburgh Combined Statistical Area, a Combined statistical area defined by the U.S. Census Bureau.
Pittsburgh falls within the borders of Appalachia as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission, and has long been characterized as the "northern urban industrial anchor of Appalachia."[70] In its post-industrial state, Pittsburgh has been characterized as the "Paris of Appalachia",[71][72][73][74] recognizing the city's cultural, educational, healthcare, and technological resources, and is the largest city in Appalachia.
ClimatePittsburgh, PennsylvaniaClimate chart (explanation)JFMAMJJASOND 2.6 3621 2.4 3923 3 4930 3.1 6240 4 7149 4.3 7958 3.8 8363 3.5 8162 3.1 7454 2.3 6343 3.2 5135 2.9 3925█ Average max. and min. temperatures in °F█ Precipitation totals in inchesMetric conversionUnder the Köppen climate classification, Pittsburgh falls within either a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa) if the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm is used or a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) if the −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm is used. Summers are hot and winters are moderately cold with wide variations in temperature. Despite this, it has one of the most pleasant summer climates between medium and large cities in the U.S.[75][76][77] The city and river valleys lie in the USDA plant hardiness zone 6b while higher elevated areas and some suburbs lie in zone 6a.[78] The area has four distinct seasons: winters are cold and snowy, springs and falls are mild with moderate levels of sunshine, and summers are warm. As measured by percent possible sunshine, summer is by far the sunniest season.[79]
The warmest month of the year in Pittsburgh is July, with a 24-hour average of 73.2 °F (22.9 °C). Conditions are often humid, and combined with highs reaching 90 °F (32 °C) on an average 9.5 days a year,[80] a considerable heat index arises. The coolest month is January, when the 24-hour average is 28.8 °F (−1.8 °C), and lows of 0 °F (−18 °C) or below can be expected on an average 2.6 nights per year.[80] Officially, record temperatures range from −22 °F (−30 °C), on January 19, 1994 to 103 °F (39 °C), which occurred three times, most recently on July 16, 1988; the record cold daily maximum is −3 °F (−19 °C), which occurred three times, most recently the day of the all-time record low, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 82 °F (28 °C) on July 1, 1901.[80][b] Due to elevation and location on the windward side of the Appalachian Mountains, 100 °F (38 °C)+ readings are very rare, and were last seen on July 15, 1995.[80]
Average annual precipitation is 39.61 inches (1,006 mm) and precipitation is greatest in May while least in October; annual precipitation has historically ranged from 22.65 in (575 mm) in 1930 to 57.83 in (1,469 mm) in 2018.[81] On average, December and January have the greatest number of precipitation days. Snowfall averages 44.1 inches (112 cm) per season, but has historically ranged from 8.8 in (22 cm) in 1918–19 to 80 in (200 cm) in 1950–51.[82] There is an average of 59 clear days and 103 partly cloudy days per year, while 203 days are cloudy.[83] In terms of annual percent-average possible sunshine received, Pittsburgh (45%) is similar to Seattle (49%).
Climate data for Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh International Airport), 1991–2020 normals,[c] extremes 1871–present[d]Air qualityIn 2019, the "State of the Air" report from the American Lung Association (ALA) found that air quality in the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV metro area worsened, not only for ozone (smog), but also for the second year in a row for both the daily and long-term measures of fine particle pollution. Outside of California, Allegheny County is the only county in the United States that recorded failing grades for all three.[87]
In a 2013 ranking of 277 metropolitan areas in the United States, the American Lung Association ranked only six U.S. metro areas as having higher amounts of short-term particle pollution, and only seven U.S. metro areas having higher amounts of year-round particle pollution than Pittsburgh. For ozone (smog) pollution, Pittsburgh was ranked 24th among U.S. metro areas.[88][89] The area has improved its air quality with every annual survey. The ALA's rankings have been disputed by the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD), since data from only the worst of the region's 20 air quality monitors is considered by the ALA, without any context or averaging. The lone monitor used is immediately downwind and adjacent to U.S. Steel's Clairton co*ke Works, the nation's largest co*ke mill, and several municipalities outside the city's jurisdiction of pollution controls, leading to possible confusion that Pittsburgh is the source or center of the emissions cited in the survey.[90] The region's readings also reflect pollution swept in from Ohio and West Virginia.[91]
Although the county was still below the "pass" threshold, the report showed substantial improvement over previous decades on every air quality measure. Fewer than 15 high ozone days were reported between 2007 and 2009, and just 10 between 2008 and 2010, compared to more than 40 between 1997 and 1999.[92] ACHD spokesman Guillermo Cole stated "It's the best it's been in the lifetime for virtually every resident in this county ... We've seen a steady decrease in pollution levels over the past decade and certainly over the past 20, 30, 40, 50 years, or more."[93]
In the summer of 2017, a crowd sourced air quality monitoring application, Smell PGH, was launched. As air quality is still a concern of many in the area, the app allows for users to report odd smells and informs local authorities.[94]
The city contains 31,000 trees on 900 miles of streets, by the last count conducted in 2005. A 2011 analysis of Pittsburgh's tree cover, which involved sampling more than 200 small plots throughout the city, showed a value of between $10 and $13 million in annual benefits based on the urban forest contributions to aesthetics, energy use and air quality. Energy savings from shade, impact on city air and water quality, and the boost in property values were taken into account in the analysis. The city spends $850,000 annually on street tree planting and maintenance.[95]
Water qualityThe local rivers continue to have pollution levels exceeding EPA limits.[96] This is caused by frequently overflowing untreated sewage into local waterways, due to flood conditions and antiquated infrastructure. Pittsburgh has a combined sewer system, where its sewage pipes contain both stormwater and wastewater. The pipes were constructed in the early 1900s, and the sewage treatment plant was built in 1959.[97] Due to insufficient improvements over time, the city is faced with public health concerns regarding its water.[98] As little as a tenth of an inch of rain causes runoffs from the sewage system to drain into local rivers.[99] Nine billion gallons of untreated waste and stormwater flow into rivers, leading to health hazards and Clean Water Act violations.[100] The local sewage authority, Allegheny County Sanitary Authority, or ALCOSAN, is operating under Consent Decree from the EPA to come up with solutions.[101] In 2017, ALCOSAN proposed a $2 billion upgrade to the system which is moving closer to EPA approval.[102]
Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority (PWSA) is the city's agency required to replace pipes and charge water rates. They have come under fire from both city and state authorities due to alleged mismanagement.[103] In 2017, Mayor William Peduto advocated for a restructuring of the PWSA and a partially privatized water authority.[104] Governor Wolf subsequently assigned the PWSA to be under the oversight of the Public Utilities Commission (PUC).[103]
DemographicsHistorical populationCensusPop.Note%±18001,565—18104,768204.7%18207,24852.0%183012,56873.4%184021,11568.0%185046,601120.7%186049,2215.6%187086,07674.9%1880156,38981.7%1890238,61752.6%1900321,61634.8%1910533,90566.0%1920588,34310.2%1930669,81713.8%1940671,6590.3%1950676,8060.8%1960604,332−10.7%1970520,117−13.9%1980423,938−18.5%1990369,879−12.8%2000334,563−9.5%2010305,704−8.6%2020302,971−0.9%2022 (est.)302,8980.0%U.S. Decennial Census[105][106][2]At the 2010 census, there were 305,704 people residing in Pittsburgh, a decrease of 8.6% since 2000; 66.0% of the population was White, 25.8% Black or African American, 0.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 4.4% Asian, 0.3% Other, and 2.3% mixed; in 2020, 2.3% of Pittsburgh's population was of Hispanic or Latino American origin of any race. Non-Hispanic whites were 64.8% of the population in 2010,[107] compared to 78.7% in 1970.[108] By the 2020 census, the population slightly declined further to 302,971.[109] Its racial and ethnic makeup in 2020 was 64.7% non-Hispanic white, 23.0% Black or African American, 5.8% Asian, and 3.2% Hispanic or Latino American of any race.
Racial composition2020[109]2010[107]1990[108]1970[108]1950[108]White66.8%66.0%72.1%79.3%87.7%– Non-Hispanic White64.7%64.8%71.6%78.7%[e]n/aBlack or African American23.0%26.1%25.8%20.2%12.2%Asian5.8%4.4%1.6%0.3%0.1%Hispanic or Latino (of any race)3.2%2.3%0.9%0.5%[e](X)
Ethnic origins in Pittsburgh
Map of racial distribution in Pittsburgh, 2010 U.S. census. Each dot is 25 people: ⬤ White ⬤ Black ⬤ Asian ⬤ Hispanic ⬤ OtherSince the beginning of the 21st century, the five largest European ethnic groups in Pittsburgh were German (19.7%), Irish (15.8%), Italian (11.8%), Polish (8.4%), and English (4.6%), while the metropolitan area is approximately 22% German-American, 15.4% Italian American and 11.6% Irish American. Pittsburgh has one of the largest Italian-American communities in the nation,[110] and the fifth-largest Ukrainian community per the 1990 census.[111] Pittsburgh has one of the most extensive Croatian communities in the United States.[112] Overall, the Pittsburgh metro area has one of the largest populations of Slavic Americans in the country.
Pittsburgh has a sizable Black and African American population, concentrated in various neighborhoods especially in the East End. There is also a small Asian community consisting of Indian immigrants, and a small Hispanic community consisting of Mexicans and Puerto Ricans.[113]
According to a 2010 Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) study, residents include 773,341 "Catholics"; 326,125 "Mainline Protestants"; 174,119 "Evangelical Protestants;" 20,976 "Black Protestants;" and 16,405 "Orthodox Christians," with 996,826 listed as "unclaimed" and 16,405 as "other" in the metro area.[113] A 2017 study by the Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies at Brandeis University estimated the Jewish population of Greater Pittsburgh was 49,200.[114]
According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 78% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, with 42% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, and 32% professing Catholic beliefs. while 18% claim no religious affiliation. The same study says that other religions (including Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism) collectively make up about 4% of the population.[115]
Religion in Pittsburgh (2014)[115]ReligionPercentProtestantism 42%Catholicism 32%Other Christian 3%No religion 18%Others 4%Don't know 1%In 2010, there were 143,739 households, out of which 21.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.2% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.4% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.95.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 19.9% under the age of 18, 14.8% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $28,588, and the median income for a family was $38,795. Males had a median income of $32,128 versus $25,500 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,816. About 15.0% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.5% of those under the age of 18 and 13.5% ages 65 or older. By the 2019 American Community Survey, the median income for a household increased to $53,799.[116] Families had a median income of $68,922; married-couple families had a median income of $93,500; and non-family households had a median income of $34,448. Pittsburgh's wealthiest suburbs within city limits are Squirrel Hill and Point Breeze, the only two areas of the city which have average household incomes over $100,000 a year. Outside of city limits, Sewickley Heights is by a wide margin the wealthiest suburb of Pittsburgh within Allegheny County, with an average yearly household income of just over $218,000. Sewickely Heights is seen as one of Pittsburgh's wealthiest suburbs culturally as well, titles which the suburbs of Upper St. Clair, Fox Chapel, Wexford, and Warrendale also have been bestowed.[117][118]
In a 2002 study, Pittsburgh ranked 22nd of 69 urban places in the U.S. in the number of residents 25 years or older who had completed a bachelor's degree, at 31%.[119] Pittsburgh ranked 15th of the 69 places in the number of residents 25 years or older who completed a high school degree, at 84.7%.[120]
The metro area has shown greater residential racial integration during the last 30 years. The 2010 census ranked 18 other U.S. metros as having greater black-white segregation, while 32 other U.S. metros rank higher for black-white isolation.[121]
As of 2018, much of Pittsburgh's population density was concentrated in the central, southern, and Eastern areas. The city limits itself have a population density of 5,513 people per square mile; its most densely populated parts are North Oakland (at 21,200 per square mile) and Uptown Pittsburgh (at 19,869 per square mile). Outside of the city limits, Dormont and Mount Oliver are Pittsburgh's most densely-populated neighborhoods, with 11,167 and 9,902 people per square mile respectively.[122]
EconomyMain article: Economy of PittsburghSee also: List of corporations in PittsburghPittsburgh has adapted since the collapse of its century-long steel and electronics industries. The region has shifted to high technology, robotics, health care, nuclear engineering, tourism, biomedical technology, finance, education, and services. Annual payroll of the region's technology industries, when taken in aggregate, exceeded $10.8 billion in 2007,[123] and in 2010 there were 1,600 technology companies.[124] A National Bureau of Economic Research 2014 report named Pittsburgh the second-best U.S. city for intergenerational economic mobility[125] or the American Dream.[126] Reflecting the citywide shift from industry to technology, former factories have been renovated as modern office space. Google has research and technology offices in a refurbished 1918–1998 Nabisco factory, a complex known as Bakery Square.[127] Some of the factory's original equipment, such as a large dough mixer, were left standing in homage to the site's industrial roots.[128] Pittsburgh's transition from its industrial heritage has earned it praise as "the poster child for managing industrial transition".[129] Other major cities in the northeast and mid-west have increasingly borrowed from Pittsburgh's model in order to renew their industries and economic base.[130]
The largest employer in the city is the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, with 48,000 employees. All hospitals, outpatient clinics, and doctor's office positions combine for 116,000 jobs, approximately 10% of the jobs in the region. An analyst recently observed of the city's medical sector: "That's both more jobs and a higher share of the region's total employment than the steel industry represented in the 1970s."[131]
Top publicly traded companiesin the Pittsburgh region for 2022(ranked by revenues)with metropolitan and U.S. ranksMetrocorporationUS1The Kraft Heinz Company1392U.S. Steel1723PNC Financial Services1784Viatris2045PPG Industries2186Dick's Sporting Goods3077Alcoa3128WESCO International3579Wabtec43910Arconic452Education is a major economic driver in the region. The largest single employer in education is the University of Pittsburgh, with 10,700 employees.[132]
Ten Fortune 500 companies call the Pittsburgh area home.[133] They are (in alphabetical order): Alcoa Corporation (NYSE: AA), Arconic Corporation (NYSE: ARNC), Dick's Sporting Goods (NYSE: DKS), The Kraft Heinz Company (NASDAQ: KHC), PNC Financial Services (NYSE: PNC), PPG Industries (NYSE: PPG), U.S. Steel Corporation (NYSE: X), Viatris (NASDAQ: VRTS), Wabtec Corporation (NYSE: WAB), and WESCO International (WYSE: WCC).[134]
The region is home to Aurora, Allegheny Technologies, American Eagle Outfitters, Duolingo, EQT Corporation, CONSOL Energy, Howmet Aerospace, Kennametal and II-VI headquarters. Other major employers include BNY Mellon, GlaxoSmithKline, Thermo Fisher Scientific, and Lanxess. The Northeast U.S. regional headquarters for Chevron Corporation, Nova Chemicals, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, FedEx Ground, Ariba, and the RAND Corporation call the area home. 84 Lumber, Giant Eagle, Highmark, Rue 21, General Nutrition Center (GNC), CNX Gas (CXG), and Genco Supply Chain Solutions are major non-public companies headquartered in the region. The global impact of Pittsburgh technology and business was recently demonstrated in several key components of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner being manufactured and supplied by area companies.[135] Area retail is anchored by over 35 shopping malls and a healthy downtown retail sector, as well as boutique shops along Walnut Street, in Squirrel Hill, Lawrenceville and Station Square.
The nonprofit arts and cultural industry in Allegheny County generates $341 million in economic activity that supports over 10,000 full-time equivalent jobs with nearly $34 million in local and state taxes raised.[136]
A leader in Environmental design, the city is home to 60 total and 10 of the world's first green buildings while billions have been invested in the area's Marcellus natural gas fields.[21] A renaissance of Pittsburgh's 116-year-old film industry—that boasts the world's first movie theater—has grown from the long-running Three Rivers Film Festival to an influx of major television and movie productions. including Disney and Paramount offices with the largest sound stage outside Los Angeles and New York City.[137]
Pittsburgh has hosted many conventions, including INPEX, the world's largest invention trade show, since 1984;[138] Tekko, a four-day anime convention, since 2003; Anthrocon, a furry convention, since 2006; and the DUG East energy trade show since 2009.
Arts and cultureMain article: Culture of PittsburghEntertainment
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical GardensPittsburgh has a rich history in arts and culture dating from 19th century industrialists commissioning and donating public works, such as Heinz Hall for the Performing Arts and the Benedum Center, home to the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra and Pittsburgh Opera, respectively as well as such groups as the River City Brass Band and the Pittsburgh Youth Symphony Orchestra.
Pittsburgh has a number of small and mid-size arts organizations including the Pittsburgh Irish and Classical Theatre, Quantum Theatre, the Renaissance and Baroque Society of Pittsburgh, and the early music ensemble Chatham Baroque. Several choirs and singing groups are also present at the cities' universities; some of the most notable include the Pitt Men's Glee Club and the Heinz Chapel Choir.
Pittsburgh Dance Council and the Pittsburgh Ballet Theater host a variety of dance events. Polka, folk, square, and round dancing have a long history in the city and are celebrated by the Duquesne University Tamburitzans, a multicultural academy dedicated to the preservation and presentation of folk songs and dance.
Hundreds of major films have been shot partially or wholly in Pittsburgh. The Dark Knight Rises was largely filmed in Downtown, Oakland, and the North Shore. Pittsburgh is also considered as the birthplace of the modern zombie film genre after George A. Romero directed the 1968 film Night of the Living Dead.[139][140] Pittsburgh has also teamed up with a Los Angeles-based production company, and has built the largest and most advanced movie studio in the Eastern United States.[137]
Pittsburgh's major art museums include the Andy Warhol Museum, the Carnegie Museum of Art, The Frick Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Center for the Arts, the Mattress Factory, and the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, which has extensive dinosaur, mineral, animal, and Egyptian collections. The Carnegie Science Center and associated SportsWorks has interactive technology and science exhibits. The Senator John Heinz History Center and Western Pennsylvania Sports Museum is a Smithsonian affiliated regional history museum in the Strip District and its associated Fort Pitt Museum is in Point State Park. Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall and Museum in Oakland houses Western Pennsylvania military exhibits from the Civil War to present. The Children's Museum of Pittsburgh on the North Side features interactive exhibits for children. The eclectic Bayernhof Music Museum is six miles (9 km) from downtown while The Clemente Museum is in the city's Lawrenceville section. The Cathedral of Learning's Nationality Rooms showcase pre-19th century learning Environments from around the world. There are regular guided and self-guided architectural tours in numerous neighborhoods. Downtown's cultural district hosts quarterly Gallery Crawls and the annual Three Rivers Arts Festival. Pittsburgh is home to a number of art galleries and centers including the Miller Gallery at Carnegie Mellon University, University Art Gallery of the University of Pittsburgh, the American Jewish Museum, and the Wood Street Galleries.
The Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium, Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens, and the National Aviary have served the city for over a century. Pittsburgh is home to the amusem*nt park Kennywood. Pittsburgh is home to one of the several state licensed casinos. The Rivers Casino is on the North Shore along the Ohio River, just west of Carnegie Science Center and Acrisure Stadium.
Pittsburgh is home to the world's second-largest furry convention known as Anthrocon, which has been held annually at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center since 2006. In 2017, Anthrocon drew over 7,000 visitors and has had a cumulative economic impact of $53 million over the course of its 11 years of being hosted in Pittsburgh.[141]
Lifetime's reality show, Dance Moms, is filmed at Pittsburgh's Abby Lee Dance Company.
MusicPittsburgh has a long tradition of jazz, blues, and bluegrass music. The National Negro Opera Company was founded in the city as the first all African-American opera company in the United States. This led to the prominence of African-American singers like Leontyne Price in the world of opera. One of the greatest American musicians and composers of the 20th century, Billy Strayhorn, grew up and was educated in Pittsburgh.
Pittsburgh's Wiz Khalifa is a recent artist to have a number one record. His anthem "Black and Yellow" (a tribute to Pittsburgh's official colors) reached number one on Billboard's "Hot 100"[142] for the Week of February 19, 2011.[143] Perry Como and Christina Aguilera are from Pittsburgh suburbs. The city is also where the band Rusted Root was formed. Liz Berlin of Rusted Root owns Mr. Smalls, a popular music venue for touring national acts in Pittsburgh.[144] Hip hop artist Mac Miller was also a Pittsburgh native, with his debut album Blue Slide Park named after the local Frick Park.
Many punk rock and Hardcore punk acts, such as Aus Rotten and Anti-Flag, originated in Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh has also seen many metal bands gain prominence in recent years,[when?] most notably Code Orange, who were nominated for a Grammy. The city was also home to the highly influential math rock band Don Caballero.
Pittsburgh has emerged as a leading city in the United States' heavy metal music scene. Ranking as the third 'most metal city' in a study conducted by MetalSucks,[145] Pittsburgh has earned a reputation for its heavy metal community. Pittsburgh is home to over six-hundred heavy metal bands,[145] as well as heavy metal coffee shops[146] and bars. The city is noted for its doom metal, metalcore, and death metal scenes.
Throughout the 1990s there was an electronic music subculture in Pittsburgh which likely traced its origins to similar Internet chatroom-based movements in Detroit, Cleveland, Minneapolis, and across the United States.[147][148][149] Pittsburgh promoters and DJs organized raves in warehouses, ice rinks, barns, and fields which eventually attracted thousands of attendees, some of whom were high school students or even younger.[148][150][151] As the events grew more popular, they drew internationally known DJs such as Adam Beyer and Richie Hawtin.[148] Pittsburgh rave culture itself spawned at least one well-known artist, the drum and bass DJ Dieselboy, who attended the University of Pittsburgh between 1990 and 1995.[147][152]
Since 2012, Pittsburgh has been the home of Hot Mass, an afterhours electronic music dance party which critics have compared favorably to European nightclubs and parties.[153][154] Electronic music artist and DJ Yaeji credits Hot Mass with her "indoctrination into nightlife"; she regularly attended the party while studying at Carnegie Mellon University.[155][156]
TheatreMain article: Theatre in Pittsburgh
Benedum CenterThe city's first play was produced at the old courthouse in 1803[31] and the first theater built in 1812.[31] Collegiate companies include the University of Pittsburgh's Repertory Theatre and Kuntu Repertory Theatre, Point Park University's resident companies at its Pittsburgh Playhouse, and Carnegie Mellon University's School of Drama productions and Scotch'n'Soda organization. The Duquesne University Red Masquers, founded in 1912, are the oldest, continuously producing theater company in Pennsylvania.[citation needed] The city's longest-running theater show, Friday Nite Improvs, is an improv jam that has been performed in the Cathedral of Learning and other locations for 20 years. The Pittsburgh New Works Festival utilizes local theater companies to stage productions of original one-act plays by playwrights from all parts of the country. Similarly, Future Ten showcases new ten-minute plays. Saint Vincent Summer Theatre, Off the Wall Productions, Mountain Playhouse, The Theatre Factory, and Stage Right! in nearby Latrobe, Carnegie, Jennerstown, Trafford, and Greensburg, respectively, employ Pittsburgh actors and contribute to the culture of the region.
LiteratureSee also: List of fiction set in Pittsburgh, List of films shot in Pittsburgh, and List of television shows shot in PittsburghPittsburgh is the birthplace of Gertrude Stein and Rachel Carson, a Chatham University graduate from the suburb of Springdale, Pennsylvania.[157] Modern writers include Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright August Wilson[158] and Michael Chabon with his Pittsburgh-focused commentary on student and college life. Two-time Pulitzer Prize winner and recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, David McCullough was born and raised in Pittsburgh.[159] Annie Dillard, a Pulitzer Prize–winning writer, was born and raised in Pittsburgh. Much of her memoir An American Childhood takes place in post-World War II Pittsburgh. Award-winning author John Edgar Wideman grew up in Pittsburgh and has based several of his books, including the memoir Brothers and Keepers, in his hometown. Poet Terrance Hayes, winner of the 2010 National Book Award and a 2014 MacArthur Foundation Fellow, received his MFA from the University of Pittsburgh, where he is a faculty member. Poet Michael Simms, founder of Autumn House Press, resides in the Mount Washington neighborhood of Pittsburgh. Poet Samuel John Hazo, the first poet Laureate of Pennsylvania, resides in the city. New writers include Chris Kuzneski who attended the University of Pittsburgh and mentions Pittsburgh in his works and Pittsburgher Brian Celio, author of Catapult Soul who captured the Pittsburgh 'Yinzer' dialect in his writing. Pittsburgh's unique literary style extends to playwrights,[160] as well as local graffiti and hip hop artists.
Pittsburgh's position as the birthplace for community owned television and networked commercial television helped spawn the modern children's show genres exemplified by Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?, Happy's Party, Cappelli & Company, and The Children's Corner, all nationally broadcast.
The Pittsburgh Dad series has showcased the Pittsburghese genre to a global YouTube audience since 2011.
The modern fantasy, macabre and science fiction genre was popularized by director George A. Romero, television's Bill Cardille and his Chiller Theatre,[161] director and writer Rusty Cundieff and makeup effects guru Tom Savini.[162] The genre continues today with the PARSEC science fiction organization,[163] The It's Alive Show, the annual "Zombie Fest",[164] and several writer's workshops including Write or Die,[165] Pittsburgh SouthWrites,[166] and Pittsburgh Worldwrights[167][168] with Barton Paul Levenson, Kenneth Chiacchia and Elizabeth Humphreys Penrose.
A Primanti Brothers sandwichPittsburgh is known for several specialties including pierogies, kielbasa, chipped chopped ham sandwiches, and Klondike bars.[169][170] In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed "Food City of the Year" by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co.[171] Many restaurants were favorably mentioned, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield, Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield, and Rolling Pepperoni in Lawrenceville.[172]
Local dialectMain article: Western Pennsylvania EnglishThe Pittsburgh English dialect, commonly called Pittsburghese, was influenced by Scots-Irish, German, and Eastern European immigrants and African Americans.[173] Locals who speak the dialect are sometimes referred to as "Yinzers" (from the local word "yinz" [var. yunz], a blended form of "you ones", similar to "y'all" and "you all" in the South). Common Pittsburghese terms are: "slippy" (slippery), "redd up" (clean up), "jagger bush" (thorn bush), and "gum bands" (rubber bands). The dialect is also notable for dropping the verb "to be". In Pittsburghese one would say "the car needs washed" instead of "needs to be washed", "needs washing", or "needs a wash." The dialect has some tonal similarities to other nearby regional dialects of Erie and Baltimore, but is noted for its somewhat staccato rhythms. The staccato qualities of the dialect are thought to originate either from Welsh or other European languages. The many local peculiarities have prompted The New York Times to describe Pittsburgh as "the Galapagos Islands of American dialect".[174] The lexicon itself contains notable loans from Polish and other European languages; examples include babushka, pierogi, and halušky.[175]
LivabilityPittsburgh has five city parks and several parks managed by the Nature Conservancy. The largest, Frick Park, provides 664 acres (269 ha) of woodland park with extensive hiking and biking trails throughout steep valleys and wooded slopes. Birding enthusiasts visit the Clayton Hill area of Frick Park, where over 100 species of birds have been recorded.[176]
Residents living in extremely low-lying areas near the rivers or one of the 1,400 creeks and streams may have occasional floods,[177] such as those caused when the remnants of Hurricane Ivan hit rainfall records in 2004.[178] River flooding is relatively rare due to federal flood control efforts extensively managing locks, dams, and reservoirs.[177][179][180] Residents living near smaller tributary streams are less protected from occasional flooding. The cost of a comprehensive flood control program for the region has been estimated at a prohibitive $50 billion.[177]
Pittsburgh has the greatest number of bars per capita in the nation.[12]
SportsMain article: Sports in PittsburghPittsburgh hosted the first professional football game and the first World Series. In 2009, Pittsburgh won the Sporting News title of "Best Sports City" in the United States[181] and, in 2013, Sperling's Best Places "top 15 cities for baseball".[182] College sports also have large followings with the University of Pittsburgh in football and sharing Division I basketball fans with Robert Morris and Duquesne.
Pittsburgh has a long history with its major professional sports teams—the Steelers of the National Football League, the Penguins of the National Hockey League, and the Pirates of Major League Baseball—which all share the same team colors, the official city colors of black and gold.[f] Pittsburgh is the only city in the United States where this practice of sharing team colors in solidarity takes place.[183] The black-and-gold color scheme has since become widely associated with the city and personified in its famous Terrible Towel.[184]
The Pittsburgh Riverhounds are a professional soccer team who have been playing in Pittsburgh since they were established in 1999. They are a member of the USL Championship division, a second-tier league of US professional soccer and are in the league's Eastern Conference. The Riverhounds play their home matches at Highmark Stadium (Pennsylvania) a 5,000 seat soccer-specific stadium located in Pittsburgh's Station Square. In keeping with the uniformity of professional sports teams in Pittsburgh, the Riverhounds colors are black and gold.
"Rails to Trails", has converted miles of former rail tracks to recreational trails, including a Pittsburgh-Washington D.C. bike/walking trail.[185] Several mountain biking trails are within the city and suburbs, Frick Park has biking trails and Hartwood Acres Park has many miles of single track trails.[186][187]
ProfessionalMajor league
TeamFoundedLeagueSportVenueChampionshipsPittsburgh Pirates1882Major League Baseball (MLB)BaseballPNC Park7[o 1]Pittsburgh Steelers1933National Football League (NFL)FootballAcrisure Stadium6[o 2]Pittsburgh Penguins1967National Hockey League (NHL)HockeyPPG Paints Arena5[o 3]Minor league/other
TeamFoundedLeagueSportVenueChampionshipsPittsburgh Riverhounds1999USL Championship (USLC)SoccerHighmark StadiumSteel City Yellow Jackets2014ABABasketballCCAC Allegheny Arena1The Pirates won championships in 1901, 1902, 1909, 1925, 1960, 1971, and 1979. 1901 and 1902 were Pre World-Series Era Champions.The Steelers won championships in 1974, 1975, 1978, 1979, 2005, and 2008.The Penguins won championships in 1991, 1992, 2009, 2016, and 2017.**Pittsburgh's ABA franchise won the 1968 title, but the Steel City Yellow Jackets franchise is heir to it only in location.
CollegePower 5
SchoolProminent sportsVenuesConferenceNational ChampionshipsUniversity of PittsburghPitt Football (FBS)Acrisure StadiumACC9[o 1]Pitt BasketballPetersen Events Center1927–28 1929–30Other
SchoolProminent sportsVenuesConferenceNational ChampionshipsDuquesne UniversityDukes Football (FCS)Art Rooney FieldNEC1941, 1973, 2003Dukes BasketballUPMC Cooper FieldhouseA101954–55 (NIT)Robert Morris UniversityColonials BasketballUPMC Events CenterNECColonials HockeyIsland Sports CenterAHAThe Panthers won championships in 1915, 1916, 1918, 1929, 1931, 1934, 1936, 1937, and 1976.Baseball
PNC Park, home stadium of the Pittsburgh Pirates[t]his is the perfect blend of location, history, design, comfort and baseball ... The best stadium in baseball is in Pittsburgh.
ESPNThe Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team, often referred to as the Bucs or the Buccos (derived from buccaneer), is the city's oldest professional sports franchise, having been founded in 1881, and plays in the Central Division of the National League. The Pirates are nine-time Pennant winners and five-time World Series Champions, were in the first World Series (1903) and claim two pre-World Series titles in 1901 and 1902. The Pirates play in PNC Park.
Pittsburgh also has a rich Negro league history, with the former Pittsburgh Crawfords and the Homestead Grays credited with as many as 14 league titles and 11 Hall of Famers between them in the 1930s and 1940s, while the Keystones fielded teams in the 1920s. In addition, in 1971 the Pirates were the first Major League team to field an all-minority lineup. One sportswriter claimed, "No city is more synonymous with black baseball than Pittsburgh."[188]
Since the late 20th century, the Pirates had three consecutive National League Championship Series appearances (1990–92) (going 6, 7 and 7 games each), followed by setting the MLB record for most consecutive losing seasons, with 20 from 1993 until 2012. This era was followed by three consecutive postseason appearances: the 2013 National League Division Series and the 2014–2015 Wild Card games. Their September pennant race in 1997 featured the franchises' last no-hitter and last award for Sporting News' Executive of the Year.[189]
FootballFurther information: American football in Western Pennsylvania
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Pittsburgh Steelers' fans waving the Terrible Towel, a tradition that dates back to 1975The city's professional team, NFL's Pittsburgh Steelers, is named after the distribution company the Pittsburgh Steeling company established in 1927. News of the team has preempted news of elections and other events, and are important to the region and its diaspora. The Steelers have been owned by the Rooney family since the team's founding in 1933, show consistency in coaching (only three coaches since the 1960s all with the same basic philosophy) and are noted as one of sports' most respectable franchises.[190] The Steelers have a long waiting list for season tickets, and have sold out every home game since 1972.[191] The team won four Super Bowls in a six-year span in the 1970s, a fifth Super Bowl in 2006, and a league record sixth Super Bowl in 2009. Since the AFL-NFL merger in 1970 they have qualified for the most NFL playoff berths (28) and have played in (15) and hosted (11) the most NFL conference championship games.[citation needed]
High school football routinely attract 10,000 fans per game and extensive press coverage.[citation needed] The Tom Cruise film All the Right Moves and ESPN's Bound for Glory with Dick Butkus both filmed in the area to capture the tradition and passion of local high school football.
College football in the city dates to 1889 with the Division I (FBS) Panthers of the University of Pittsburgh posting nine national championships and qualifying 34 total bowl games and appearing in the 2018 ACC Championship Game. Local universities Duquesne and Robert Morris have loyal fan bases that follow their lower (FCS) teams. Duquesne, Carnegie Mellon University, and Washington & Jefferson College all posted major bowl games and AP Poll rankings from the 1920s to the 1940s as that era's equivalent of Top 25 FBS programs.[citation needed]
Acrisure Stadium serves as home for the Steelers, Panthers, and both the suburban and city high school championships. Playoff franchises Pittsburgh Power and Pittsburgh Gladiators competed in the Arena Football League in the 1980s and 2010s respectively. The Gladiators hosted ArenaBowl I in the city, competing in two, but losing both before moving to Tampa, Florida and becoming the Storm.[192] The Pittsburgh Passion has been the city's professional women's football team since 2002 and plays its home games at Highmark Stadium. The Ed Debartolo owned Pittsburgh Maulers featured a Heisman Trophy winner in the mid-1980s, former superstar University of Nebraska running back Mike Rozier.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The NHL's Pittsburgh Penguins have played in Pittsburgh since the team's founding in 1967. The team has won 6 Eastern Conference titles (1991, 1992, 2008, 2009, 2016 and 2017) and 5 Stanley Cup championships (1991, 1992, 2009, 2016 and 2017). Since 1999, Hall of Famer and back-to-back playoff MVP Mario Lemieux has served as Penguins owner. Until moving into the PPG Paints Arena in 2010 (when it was known as Consol Energy Center), the team played their home games at the world's first retractable domed stadium, the Civic Arena, or in local parlance "The Igloo".[193]
Ice hockey has had a regional fan base since the 1890s semi-pro Keystones. The city's first ice rink dates back to 1889, when there was an ice rink at the Casino in Schenley Park. From 1896 to 1956, the Exposition Building on the Allegheny River near The Point and Duquesne Gardens in Oakland offered indoor skating.[194]
The NHL awarded one of its first franchises to the city in 1924 on the strength of the back-to-back USAHA championship winning Pittsburgh Yellow Jackets featuring future Hall of Famers and a Stanley Cup winning coach. The NHL's Pittsburgh Pirates made several Stanley Cup playoff runs with a future Hall of Famer before folding from Great Depression financial pressures. Hockey survived with the Pittsburgh Hornets farm team (1936–1967) and their seven finals appearances and three championships in 18 playoff seasons.
Robert Morris University fields a Division I college hockey team at the Island Sports Center. Pittsburgh has semi-pro and amateur teams such as the Pittsburgh Penguins Elite.[195] Pro-grade ice rinks such as the Rostraver Ice Garden, Mt. Lebanon Recreation Center and Iceoplex at Southpointe have trained several native Pittsburgh players for NHL play. RMU hosted the city's first Frozen Four college championship in 2013 with the four PPG Paints Arena games televised by ESPN.
A Pitt Panthers men's basketball game at the Petersen Events Center in 2009Professional basketball in Pittsburgh dates to the 1910s with teams "Monticello" and "Loendi" winning five national titles, the Pirates (1937–45 in the NBL), the Pittsburgh Ironmen (1947–48 NBA inaugural season), the Pittsburgh Rens (1961–63), the Pittsburgh Pipers (first American Basketball Association championship in 1968) led by Connie Hawkins (team then moved); the Pittsburgh Condors (ABA returned in 1970–72), the Pittsburgh Piranhas (CBA Finals in 1995), the Pittsburgh Xplosion (2004–08) and Phantoms (2009–10) both of the ABA. The city has hosted dozens of pre-season and 15 regular season "neutral site" NBA games, including Wilt Chamberlain's record setting performance in both consecutive field goals and field goal percentage on February 24, 1967, NBA records that still stand.[196]
The Duquesne University Dukes and the University of Pittsburgh Panthers have played college basketball in the city since 1914 and 1905 respectively. Pitt and Duquesne have played the annual City Game since 1932. Duquesne was the city's first team to appear in a Final Four (1940), obtain a number one AP Poll ranking (1954),[197] and to win a post-season national title, the 1955 National Invitation Tournament on its second straight trip to the NIT title game. Duquesne is the only college program to produce back-to-back NBA No. 1 overall draft picks with 1955's Dick Ricketts and 1956's Sihugo Green.[198] Duquesne's Chuck Cooper was the first African American drafted by an NBA team.[199]
The Panthers won two pre-tournament era Helms Athletic Foundation National Championships in 1928 and 1930, competed in a "national title game" against LSU in 1935, and made a Final Four appearance in 1941. Pitt has won 13 conference titles, qualified for the NCAA tournament 26 times including a post season tournament every season between 1999 and 2000 and 2015–2016 during which time it regularly sold out the Petersen Events Center. The program has produced 27 NBA draft picks and 15 All Americans while ranking No. 1 in the nation as recently as 2009.
The suburban Robert Morris University's Colonials have competed in NCAA Division I basketball since the 1970s, qualifying for the NCAA tournament in each of the last four decades (8). In the 2013 National Invitation Tournament the Colonials notched an upset win over the defending national champions Kentucky Wildcats.
Pittsburgh Panthers women's basketball has qualified for 14 post season tournaments (including 4 NCAA tournaments) and boasts of 5 All-Americans selected 6 times with 3 WNBA players. Pitt women began play in 1914 before being reintroduced in 1970. Both Duquesne and Robert Morris also have competitive Division I women's basketball programs.
Pittsburgh launched the nation's first high school all-star game in 1965.[200] The Roundball Classic annually featured future NBA hall of famers at the Civic Arena with ESPN televising. The Civic Arena also hosted the championship tournament for the Eastern Eight Conference from 1978 until 1982.
SoccerThe Riverhounds, an American professional soccer team, were founded in 1998. Like the major league teams in the city, the Riverhounds wear black and gold kits. The club plays in the Eastern Conference of the USL Championship, the second tier of the American soccer pyramid. The Riverhounds play their home games at Highmark Stadium, a soccer-specific stadium located in Station Square.
GolfSee also: List of people from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area § GolfGolf has deep roots in the area. The oldest U.S. course in continuous use, Foxburg Country Club dating from 1887 calls the region home.[citation needed] Suburban Oakmont Country Club holds the record for most times as host for the U.S. Open (8).[citation needed] U.S. Women's Open (2), PGA Championships (3), and U.S. Amateurs (8) have also called Oakmont home.
Golf legends Arnold Palmer, Jim Furyk, and Rocco Mediate learned the game and began their careers on Pittsburgh area courses.[201] Suburban courses such as Laurel Valley Golf Club and the Fox Chapel Golf Club have hosted PGA Championships (1937, 1965), the Ryder Cup (1975), LPGA Championships (1957–58), Senior Players Championships (2012–14), and the Senior PGA Championship (2005).
Local courses have sponsored annual major tournaments for 40 years:
Pennsylvania Open Championship 1920–1940 (even years)Dapper Dan Open 1939–1949Pittsburgh Open (LPGA Tour) 1956Pittsburgh Senior Classic 1993–199884 Lumber Classic 2001–2006Mylan Classic 2010–2013Professional wrestlingMany notable professional wrestlers and promoters have hailed from the city or started their careers in Pittsburgh, including Bruno Sammartino, Kurt Angle, Shane Douglas, Corey Graves, Dominic DeNucci, Elias, Britt Baker and many more.
The Fineview section of Pittsburgh served as the base of the televised show Studio Wrestling during the 1960s.[citation needed] The Keystone State Wrestling Alliance (KSWA) is a professional wrestling promotion which was founded in Pittsburgh in 2000. It is the only promotion based in Pittsburgh. It operates in the city's Lawrenceville neighborhood. The KSWA performs Monthly on Saturdays at its main venue on 51st Street.
Annual sporting events
Pittsburgh Vintage Grand PrixPittsburgh hosts several annual major sporting events initiated in the late 20th century, including the:
Three Rivers Regatta (since 1977)Pittsburgh Vintage Grand Prix (since 1983)Dirty Dozen Cycle Race (since 1983)Pittsburgh Marathon (since 1985)Great Race 10K (since 1985)Head of the Ohio Regatta (since 1987)The city's vibrant rivers have attracted annual world-title fishing competitions of the Forrest Wood Cup in 2009 and the Bassmaster Classic in 2005.
Annual events continue during the winter months at area ski resorts such as Boyce Park, Seven Springs, Hidden Valley Resort, Laurel Mountain, and Wisp. Ice skating rinks are enjoyed at PPG Place and North Park.
Government and politicsGovernmentMain article: Government of Pittsburgh
The Pittsburgh City-County Building, the seat of government of the City of PittsburghThe Government of Pittsburgh is composed of the Mayor of Pittsburgh, the Pittsburgh City Council, and various boards and commissions. The mayor and the nine-member council each serve four-year terms. Since the 1950s the Mayor's Chief of Staff has assumed a large role in advising, long term planning, and as a "gatekeeper" to the mayor. City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts. The government's official offices are in the Pittsburgh City-County Building.
The Pennsylvania Supreme Court holds sessions in Pittsburgh, as well as Harrisburg and Philadelphia. Pittsburgh is represented in the Pennsylvania General Assembly by three Senate Districts and nine House Districts. Federally, Pittsburgh is part of Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district.
2020 Presidential Election by Precinctofferen: 40–50% 50–60% 60–70% 70–80% 80–90% 90–100%Trump: 50–60% 60–70%See also: Allegheny County, Pennsylvania § PoliticsIn 2006, Council President Luke Ravenstahl was sworn in as mayor at age 26, becoming the youngest mayor in the history of any major American city. His successor, Bill Peduto, was sworn in on January 6, 2014. In November 2021, Pittsburgh elected its first African-American mayor, Ed Gainey.
Prior to the American Civil War, Pittsburgh was strongly abolitionist. It is considered the birthplace of the national Republican Party,[202] as the party held its first convention here in February 1856. From the Civil War to the 1930s, Pittsburgh was a Republican stronghold. The effects of the Great Depression, combined with entrenched local GOP scandals, resulted in a shift among voters to the Democratic Party. With the exceptions of the 1973 and 1977 elections (where lifelong Democrats ran off the party ticket), Democrats have been elected consecutively to the mayor's office since the 1933 election. The city's ratio of party registration is 5 to 1 Democrat.[203]
Pittsburgh is represented in the Pennsylvania General Assembly by three Senate Districts (Lindsey Williams (D)-38, Wayne D. Fontana (D)-42, and Jay Costa (D)-43) and nine House Districts (Aerion Abney-19, Adam Ravenstahl-20, Sara Innamorato-21, Dan Frankel-23, Martell Covington-24, Dan Deasy-27, Summer Lee-34, and Harry Readshaw-36, Dan Miller-42).
Federally, Pittsburgh is part of Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district, represented by Democrat Summer Lee since 2023 and also by Democrat Chris Deluzio.
Law enforcement
A Ford Taurus and a Chevrolet Impala belonging to the Pittsburgh PoliceThe area's largest law enforcement agency is the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police, with close to 850 sworn officers. The city also has separate housing and school police departments. Other agencies also provide police protection within the city because of overlapping jurisdictional boundaries. The Allegheny County Sheriff focuses on jail and courthouse security. The Allegheny County Police primarily patrols county-owned parks and airports, while providing detective/investigatory functions for smaller suburbs and the Port Authority police patrols rapid transit. Pennsylvania State Police Troop B provides patrols for the city and immediate suburbs.
The county's lead law enforcement officer is Allegheny County District Attorney Stephen Zappala while the Allegheny County Medical Examiner heads forensics. Crimes of a federal nature are covered by the U.S. Attorney for Western Pennsylvania.
CrimePittsburgh annually ranks as one of America's safest big cities, in 2013 being named the 3rd "most secure" big city by Farmers Insurance.[204] Among crime rates of the 60 largest U.S. cities, 43 had more instances of property crime while 16 had less when compared to Pittsburgh. More instances of violent crime were reported in 21 of the largest cities while 37 had less. The FBI recommends against using data for ranking.[205][206] Per 100,000 persons stats (2012):
MurderRapeRobberyAssaultBurglaryTheftMotor VehicleTotal ViolentTotal PropertyCity13.115.1363.3360.4812.82,438.2174.3752.03,425.4At the end of 2019, the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police reported 37 murders in the city that year.[207]
EducationColleges and universitiesSee also: List of colleges and universities in Pittsburgh
The Cathedral of Learning at the University of Pittsburgh
The main campus of Carnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburgh is home to many colleges, universities and research facilities, the most well-known of which are Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Pittsburgh, and Duquesne University. Also in the city are Carlow University, Chatham University, Point Park University, the Community College of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary, and the Pittsburgh Institute of Mortuary Science.
The campuses of Carlow, Carnegie Mellon, and the University of Pittsburgh are near each other in the Oakland neighborhood that is the city's traditional cultural center. Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is a private research university founded by Andrew Carnegie and Andrew Mellon.[208] CMU contains the School of Computer Science, College of Engineering, School of Business, Heinz College, College of Fine Arts, writing, Social and Decision Sciences, Mellon College of Science, information systems, statistics, and psychology programs.
The University of Pittsburgh, established in 1787 and popularly referred to as "Pitt", is a state-related school with one of the nation's largest research programs.[14] Pitt is known for the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh School of Information Sciences, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh College of Business Administration, University of Pittsburgh School of Law, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Social Work, and other biomedical and health-related University is a small private Catholic university that while coeducational, has traditionally educated women. Chatham University, a liberal arts college that was founded as a woman's college but became fully coeducational in 2015,[213] is in the Shadyside neighborhood, but also maintains a 388-acre (157 ha) Eden Hall Farm campus in the North Hills. Duquesne University, a private Catholic university in the Bluff neighborhood and is noted for its song and dance troupe, the Duquesne University Tamburitzans, as well as programs in law, business, and pharmacy. Point Park University was founded in 1961 and is well known for its Conservatory of Performing Arts and its Pittsburgh Playhouse.
Primary educationFurther information: Pittsburgh Public Schools
Taylor Allderdice High School in Pittsburgh in November 2006Pittsburgh Public Schools teachers are paid well relative to their peers, ranking 17th in 2000 among the 100 largest cities by population for the highest minimum salary. In 2018, the starting teacher salary offered to teachers with a BA was $46,920. The maximum annual salary for a teacher with a master's degree was $95,254.[214]
Local public schools include many charter and magnet schools, including City Charter High School (computer and technology focused), Pittsburgh Montessori School (formerly Homewood Montessori), Pittsburgh Gifted Center, Barack Obama Academy of International Studies 6-12, Pittsburgh Creative and Performing Arts 6–12, Pittsburgh Science and Technology Academy, the Western Pennsylvania School for Blind Children, and the Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf.
Private schools in Pittsburgh include Bishop Canevin High School, Central Catholic High School, Oakland Catholic High School, Winchester Thurston School, St. Edmund's Academy, Hillel Academy of Pittsburgh, Yeshiva Schools and The Ellis School. Shady Side Academy maintains a PK–5 primary school campus in the Point Breeze neighborhood, in addition to its 6–12 middle and upper school campuses in nearby suburban Fox Chapel. Other private institutions outside of Pittsburgh's limits include North Catholic High School and Seton-La Salle Catholic High School.
The city also has an extensive library system, both public and university. Most notable are the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh's University Library System, which rank as the ninth-largest public and 18th-largest academic libraries in the nation, respectively.[215]
MediaMain articles: Media in Pittsburgh, List of films shot in Pittsburgh, and List of television shows shot in PittsburghNewspapers
KDKA-AM's studios at Gateway CenterThere are two major daily newspapers in Pittsburgh: the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette and the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review online only (no longer in print for Pittsburgh Area). Weekly papers in the region include the Pittsburgh Business Times, Pittsburgh City Paper, Pittsburgh Catholic, Pittsburgh Jewish Chronicle, The New People, and the New Pittsburgh Courier. Independent student-written university-based newspapers include The Pitt News of the University of Pittsburgh, The Tartan of Carnegie Mellon University, The Duquesne Duke of Duquesne University, and The Globe of Point Park University. The University of Pittsburgh School of Law is also home to JURIST, the world's only university-based legal news service.[216]
TelevisionThe Pittsburgh metro area is served by multiple local television and radio stations. The Pittsburgh designated market area (DMA) is the 22nd-largest in the U.S. with 1,163,150 homes (1.045% of the total U.S.).[217] The major network television affiliates are KDKA-TV 2 (CBS), WTAE 4 (ABC), WPXI 11 (NBC), WPGH-TV 53 (Fox), WPCW 19 (The CW), WINP-TV 16 (Ion), WPNT 22 (MyNetworkTV), and WPCB 40 (Cornerstone). KDKA-TV, WINP-TV, and WPCB are network owned-and-operated stations.
WQED 13 is the local PBS station in Pittsburgh. It was established on April 1, 1954, and was the first community-sponsored television station and the fifth public station in the United States. The station has produced much original content for PBS, including Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood, several National Geographic specials, and Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?[218]
RadioThere is a wide variety of radio stations serving the Pittsburgh market. The first was KDKA 1020 AM, also the world's first commercially licensed radio station, airing on November 2, 1920.[219] Other stations include KQV 1410 AM (news), WBGG 970 AM (sports), KDKA-FM 93.7 FM (sports), WKST-FM 96.1 FM (Top 40), WAMO-AM 660 AM and 107.3 FM (urban contemporary) WBZZ 100.7 FM (adult contemporary), WDVE 102.5 FM (album rock), WPGB 104.7 FM (Country), and WXDX 105.9 FM (modern rock). There are also three public radio stations in the area; including WESA 90.5 FM (National Public Radio affiliate), WQED 89.3 FM (classical), and WYEP 91.3 FM (adult alternative). Three non-commercial stations are run by Carnegie Mellon University (WRCT 88.3 FM), the University of Pittsburgh (WPTS 92.1 FM), and Point Park University (WPPJ 670 AM).
FilmPittsburgh's 116-year-old film industry accelerated after the 2006 passage of the Pennsylvania Film Production Tax Credit.[220] According to the Pittsburgh Film Office, over 124 major motion pictures have been filmed, in whole or in part, in Pittsburgh, including The Mothman Prophecies, Wonder Boys,[221] Dogma,[221] Hoffa, The Silence of the Lambs,[221] Sudden Death, Flashdance,[221] Southpaw, Striking Distance, Mrs. Soffel, Jack Reacher, Inspector Gadget, The Next Three Days, The Perks of Being a Wallflower,[221] Zack and Miri Make a p*rno, and Fences.[221][222] Pittsburgh became "Gotham City" in 2011 during filming of The Dark Knight Rises.[137] George A. Romero shot nearly all his films in the area, including his Living Dead series.[citation needed]
Film production in Pittsburgh has notably impacted the region's economy and job creation, largely due to the 25% tax credit incentive established in 2007.[223][224] The Pittsburgh Film Office states that the film and television industry provides employment to over 10,000 people and pays over $500 million in wages in southwestern Pennsylvania.[225] Furthermore, the industry supports over 345,000 local businesses and contributes over $41 billion to them.[224]
From 2017 to 2023, Pittsburgh has welcomed a series of major film and television productions like Fences, Mindhunter, Ma Rainey's Black Bottom, The Outsider, Sweet Girl, and I'm Your Woman.[226] These productions have significantly contributed to the local economy by hiring local personnel, leasing local facilities and equipment, purchasing local goods and services, and enhancing local tourism and visibility.[227]
In addition to a thriving film industry, Pittsburgh is home to several film festivals, film schools, and organizations that encourage and promote independent and diverse filmmakers. Notable film festivals include the Three Rivers Film Festival, the Pittsburgh Shorts Film Festival, the JFilm Festival, the ReelAbilities Film Festival, and the Black Bottom Film Festival.[228][229] The local film schools include Pittsburgh Filmmakers, Point Park University - Cinema & Digital Arts, and University of Pittsburgh - Film Studies.[230][231]
Moreover, Pittsburgh is developing a robust film studio infrastructure, with several sound stages and production facilities available for hire. Prominent film studios in Pittsburgh are 3 Rivers Studios, Cinelease Studios, Post Script Films, Deeplocal, and The Videohouse.[232][233][234][235][236] There are also plans in the pipeline to develop a new film studio complex at the Carrie Furnace site in Rankin and Swissvale.[237]
UtilitiesFurther information: Allegheny County Sanitary AuthorityThe city is served by Duquesne Light, one of the original 1912 power companies founded by George Westinghouse.[238] Water service is provided by the Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority[239] and Pennsylvania American Water. Natural gas is provided by Equitable Gas, Columbia Gas, Dominion Resources, Direct Energy, and Novec.[240]
Health careSee also: List of hospitals in Pittsburgh
UPMC's Flagship, UPMC Presbyterian
Allegheny General Hospital, the Flagship of the Allegheny Health NetworkThe two largest area health care providers are the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) (since 1893) and Allegheny Health Network (since 1882). Both hospitals annually rank as among the best overall in the United States, with UPMC ranked among U.S. News & World Report's "Honor Roll" every year since 2000.[citation needed]
The first military hospital in U.S. history and the first west of the Atlantic Plain—General Edward Hand Hospital—served the area from 1777 to 1845.[241] Since 1847, Pittsburgh has hosted the world's first "Mercy Hospital".[242] This was followed by West Penn hospital in 1848, Passavant Hospital in 1849,[31] the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in 1883, Children's Hospital in 1887, and Magee Womens Hospital in 1911. In 1954, Allegheny General (AGH) was among the first to administer Cobalt therapy.[243]
In 1980, UPMC announced a $250 million ($1.01 billion today) expansion and also hired transplant pioneer Thomas Starzl.[244] In 1984, Allegheny General surgeons pioneered modern brain surgery. Starzl arranged the 1985 liver transplant of 5-year-old Amie Garrison as a UPMC surgery team flew to Baylor University, starting its transplant program.[245] Also in 1985, UPMC surgeons Drs. Griffith, Hardesty, and Trento revealed a new device after a heart-lung transplant. In 1986, UPMC announced a $230 million ($614 million today) modernization. In 1996, UPMC's planned Sicily ISMETT branch was approved by the Italian government as transplant surgeons to supervise and deliver the world's third (both earlier ones done at UPMC)--and first public—cross species marrow transplant at University of California, San Francisco.[246] UPMC's Thomas Detre founded the International Society for Bipolar Disorders at a world medical conference in Pittsburgh in 1999.[247]
The $80 million ($136 million today) UPMC Sports Performance Complex for the Pittsburgh Panthers & Pittsburgh Steelers opened in 2000. In 2002, AGH opened its $30 million ($49.6 million today), 5-floor, 100,000 sq. ft., cancer center. The $130 million ($212 million today) 350,000 sq. ft. Hillman Cancer Center opened in 2003 as UPMC entered into an 8-year, $420 million ($651 million today) agreement with IBM to upgrade medical technologies & health information systems.[citation needed]
In 2009, the $600 million ($816 million today) UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh opened. The campus was featured in world news in 2012 for several unique approaches to patient care.[248] UPMC officially adopted in Erie, Pennsylvania's Hamot Medical Center in 2010. The Pittsburgh Penguins announced a state of the art training facility with UPMC in 2012.[249] UPMC announced in 2013 it had partnered with Nazarbayev University to help found its medical school.[250]
Health discoveriesWhile he was a professor at the University of Pittsburgh, American virologist Jonas Salk developed one of the first successful polio vaccines, which came into use in 1955.
UPMC has pioneered several world firsts including the first known cystic fibrosis heart-lung transplant (1983), the world's first simultaneous liver and heart transplant operation on a child (6-year-old Stormie Jones in 1984), the youngest heart-lung transplant (9 years old in 1985), the world's first heart-liver-kidney transplant (1989), the world's first heart-liver transplant on an infant (1997),[251] the first pediatric heart-double lung-liver transplant (1998), the nation's first double hand transplant (2009), and the first total forearm and hand transplant (2010), as well as the state's first heart transplant (1968).[252][253]
The Lancet published a 2012 UPMC study of two 9-year quadriplegics being able to move a robotic arm by thought, to pick up objects, shake hands, and even eat. Wiring the brain around spine damage to restore arm and leg muscle function was successful using robotic arms controlled via an embedded computer to translate signals near a small group of neurons with 200 needles.[254]
TransportationMain article: Transportation in Pittsburgh
Aerial view of Pittsburgh's numerous bridgesPittsburgh is a city of bridges. With 446,[255] it has three bridges more than Venice, Italy, which has historically held the title "City of Bridges."[256] Around 40 bridges cross the three rivers near the city. The Smithfield Street Bridge was the world's first lenticular truss bridge. The city's Three Sisters Bridges offer a picturesque view of the city from the North. The south-western "entrance" to Downtown for travelers coming in from Interstate 79 and the Pittsburgh International Airport is through the Fort Pitt Tunnel and over the Fort Pitt Bridge. The Fort Duquesne Bridge carrying Interstate 279 is the main gateway from Downtown to both PNC Park, Acrisure Stadium and the Rivers Casino. The Panhandle Bridge carries Pittsburgh Regional Transit's Blue/Red/Silver subway lines across the Monongahela River. The renovated J&L Steel Company bridge has been a key traffic/running-biking trail conduit connecting the Southside Works and Pittsburgh Technology Center. Over 2,000 bridges span the landscape of Allegheny County.[citation needed]
Public transportation statisticsPittsburgh is served by Pittsburgh Regional Transit, the 26th-largest transit agency in the country prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Pittsburgh, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 73 min. 23% of public transit riders ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 17 minutes, while 33% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 3.9 mi (6.3 km), while 11% travel for over 7.5 mi (12 km) in a single direction.[257]
Expressways and highwaysExpresswaysOther HighwaysParkway NorthUS 19 PA 88
Parkway East & WestTruckUS 19 PA 121CrosstownPA 8 PA 130Allegheny Valley ExpresswayPA 50 PA 380Ohio River BoulevardPA 51 PA 837 PA 60 PA 885
I-279Locals refer to the interstates fanning out from downtown Pittsburgh as the "parkways." Interstate 376 is both the "parkway east" connecting to Interstate 76 (Pennsylvania Turnpike) and the "parkway west" connecting to Interstate 79, the Pittsburgh International Airport, the Ohio end of the Turnpike and Interstate 80. The "parkway north" is Interstate 279 connecting to I-79. The "crosstown" is Interstate 579 allowing access to the heart of downtown, the Liberty Tunnels and the PPG Paints Arena. The 45-mile-long and 70-mile-long expressway sections of Pennsylvania Route 28 and U.S. Route 22 also carry traffic from downtown to the northeast and western suburbs, respectively. Interstate 70, 79 and 76 (the Turnpike) roughly form a triangular-shaped "beltway" with Interstate 68 and 80 within the media market's northern and southern limits. Turnpike spurs such as the Mon–Fayette Expressway, Pennsylvania Route 576 and Route 66 also help traffic flow. The non-expressway Pittsburgh/Allegheny County Belt System serves navigation in the region.
AirportsMain article: Pittsburgh metropolitan area § AirportsPittsburgh International Airport provides commercial passenger service from over 15 airlines to the Pittsburgh metropolitan area. Arnold Palmer Regional Airport also provides limited commercial passenger service and is 44 miles (71 km) east of Pittsburgh.
Other airports with scheduled commercial service include Morgantown Municipal Airport (79 miles (127 km) south of Pittsburgh), Youngstown–Warren Regional Airport (81 miles (130 km) northwest of Pittsburgh), Akron–Canton Airport (120 miles (190 km) northwest of Pittsburgh), Johnstown–Cambria County Airport (60 miles (97 km) east of Pittsburgh) and Erie International Airport (123 miles (198 km) north of Pittsburgh).
Intercity passenger rail and busMain articles: Union Station (Pittsburgh) and Grant Street Transportation CenterAmtrak provides intercity rail service to Pittsburgh Union Station, via the Capitol Limited between Chicago and Washington, D.C., and the Pennsylvanian to New York City.
Megabus, Greyhound Lines, and Fullington Trailways connect Pittsburgh with distant cities by bus; Greyhound and Fullington Trailways buses stop at the Grant Street Transportation Center intercity bus terminal. Popular destinations include Philadelphia, New York City, and Washington, D.C.[258]
Until declines in passenger travel in the 1950s and 1960s, several stations served Pittsburgh: Baltimore & Ohio Station, Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad Station, Wabash Pittsburgh Terminal and Pittsburgh Union Station.
Regional mass transitMain articles: Pittsburgh Light Rail and Port Authority of Allegheny County § Bus rapid transit
Steel Plaza subway stationPittsburgh Regional Transit, formerly known as the Port Authority of Allegheny County, is the region's mass transit system. While serving only a portion of the Pittsburgh area, the nation's 20th-largest metropolitan area, it is the 11th-largest transit agency in the United States.[259] Pittsburgh Regional Transit runs a network of intracity and intercity bus routes, the Monongahela Incline Funicular railway (more commonly known as an "incline") on Mount Washington, a light rail system that runs mostly above-ground in the suburbs and underground as a subway in the city, and one of the nation's largest busway systems.[260] Pittsburgh Regional Transit owns the Duquesne Incline but it is operated by a non-profit preservation trust,[261] but accepts Pittsburgh Regional Transit passes and charges PRT fares.
The Bus System lines are labeled by number and letter. These are the largest portion of Pittsburgh Regional Transit and serve on streets and designated busways. Buses serve most of the county, extending as far as Pittsburgh International Airport, Monroeville, McCandless, and the borders of Westmoreland County and Beaver County, Pennsylvania. Meanwhile, the light rail system (commonly known as the "T") runs along both new tracks and those refurbished from the streetcar era. The light rail runs from Acrisure Stadium to South Hills Village and Library, taking commuters through one of two routes: one which serves Castle Shannon, Mt. Lebanon, and Beechview, and the other is an express line using railways through Overbrook.
Freight rail
Union Station, built in 1903Pittsburgh's rail industry dates to 1851 when the Pennsylvania Railroad first opened service between the city and Philadelphia, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad entered the city in 1871. In 1865 Andrew Carnegie opened the Pittsburgh Locomotive and Car Works which manufactured for the industry until 1919. Carnegie also founded the Union Railroad in 1894 for heavy freight services and it still serves the area's steel industry, while George Westinghouse's Wabtec has been a leader in rail engines and switching since 1869.
Pittsburgh is home to one of Norfolk Southern Railway's busiest freight corridors, the Pittsburgh Line, and operates up to 70 trains per day through the city. The suburban Conway Rail Yard, built in 1889, was the largest freight rail center in the world from 1956 until 1980 and is today the nation's second-largest. CSX, the other major freight railroad in the Eastern U.S. also has major operations around Pittsburgh.
PortThe Port of Pittsburgh ranks as the 20th-largest port in the United States with almost 34 million short tons of river cargo for 2011, the port ranked ninth-largest in the U.S. when measured in domestic trade.[262]
Notable peopleMain article: List of people from PittsburghSister citiesPittsburgh's sister cities are:[263]
Spain Bilbao, SpainVietnam Da Nang, VietnamParaguay Fernando de la Mora, ParaguayTurkey Gaziantep, TurkeyScotland Glasgow, ScotlandIsrael Karmiel, IsraelCuba Matanzas, CubaIsrael Misgav, IsraelMexico Naucalpan, MexicoCzech Republic Ostrava, Czech RepublicSlovakia Prešov, SlovakiaGermany Saarbrücken, GermanyJapan Saitama, JapanNicaragua San Isidro, NicaraguaEngland Sheffield, England[g]North Macedonia Skopje, North MacedoniaBulgaria Sofia, BulgariaChina Wuhan, ChinaCroatia Zagreb, CroatiaSee also
Pennsylvania (/ˌpɛnsɪlˈveɪniə/ (listeni) PEN-sil-VAY-nee-ə; Pennsylvania German: Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,[b] is a state spanning the Mid-Atlantic, NorthEastern, Appalachian, and Great Lakes regions of the United States. Pennsylvania borders Delaware to its southeast, Maryland to its south, West Virginia to its southwest, Ohio to its west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to its northwest, New York to its north, and the Delaware River and New Jersey to its east.
Pennsylvania is the fifth-most populous state in the United States, with over 13 million residents as of the 2020 United States census.[4] The state is the 33rd-largest by area and has the ninth-highest population density among all states. The largest metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is the southEastern Delaware Valley, which includes and surrounds Philadelphia, the state's largest and nation's sixth-most populous city. The second-largest metropolitan area, Greater Pittsburgh, is centered in and around Pittsburgh, the state's second-largest city. The state's subsequent five most populous cities are Allentown, Reading, Erie, Scranton, and Bethlehem.[7] The state capital is Harrisburg.
Pennsylvania's geography is highly diverse. The Appalachian Mountains run through the center of the state; the Allegheny and Pocono mountains span much of NorthEastern Pennsylvania; close to 60% of the state is forested. While it has only 140 miles (225 km) of waterfront along Lake Erie and the Delaware River,[8] Pennsylvania has the most navigable rivers of any state in the nation, including the Allegheny, Delaware, Genesee, Ohio, Schuylkill, Susquehanna, and others.
Pennsylvania was founded in 1681 through a royal land grant to William Penn, son of the state's namesake; a southeast portion of the state was once part of the colony of New Sweden. Established as a haven for religious and political tolerance, the colonial-era Province of Pennsylvania was known for its relatively peaceful relations with native tribes, innovative government system, and religious pluralism. Pennsylvania played a vital and historic role in the American Revolution and the ultimately successful quest for independence from the British Empire, hosting the First and Second Continental Congress leading to the adoption of the Declaration of Independence.[9] On December 12, 1787, Pennsylvania became the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.[10] The bloodiest battle of the American Civil War, at Gettysburg over three days in July 1863, proved the war's turning point, leading to the Union's preservation. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, the state's manufacturing-based economy contributed to the development of much of the nation's early infrastructure, including key bridges, skyscrapers, and military hardware used in U.S.-led victories in World War I, World War II, and the Cold War.
Since the state's 1787 founding, a number of influential Pennsylvanians have proven national and global leaders in their respective fields. Pennsylvania also has accumulated a lengthy list of firsts among U.S. states, including founding the nation's first library (1731), the first social club (1732), the first science organization (1743), the first Lutheran church (1748), the first hospital (1751), the first medical school (1765), the first daily newspaper (1784), the first arts institution (1805), the first theatre (1809), the first business school (1881), and other firsts among the nation's 50 states.
HistoryMain article: History of PennsylvaniaSee also: List of Pennsylvania firsts and List of people from PennsylvaniaIndigenous settlementPennsylvania's history of human habitation extends to thousands of years before the foundation of the colonial Province of Pennsylvania in 1681. Archaeologists believe the first settlement of the Americas occurred at least 15,000 years ago during the last glacial period, though it is unclear when humans first entered the area now known as Pennsylvania. There also is open debate in the archaeological community regarding when ancestors of Native Americans expanded across the two continents down to the tip of South America; possibilities range between 30,000 and 10,500 years ago.[11] Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Jefferson Township includes the earliest known signs of human activity in Pennsylvania and perhaps all of North America,[12] including the remains of a civilization that existed over 10,000 years ago and possibly pre-dated the Clovis culture.[13][12] By 1000 CE, in contrast to their nomadic hunter-gatherer ancestors, the native population of Pennsylvania had developed agricultural techniques and a mixed food economy.[14]
By the time European colonization of the Americas began, at least two major Native American tribes inhabited Pennsylvania.[13] The first, the Lenape, spoke an Algonquian language and inhabited the Eastern region of the state, then known as Lenapehoking. It included most of New Jersey and most of the Lehigh Valley and Delaware Valley regions of Eastern and southEastern Pennsylvania. The Lenape's territory ended somewhere between the Delaware River in the east and the Susquehanna River in central Pennsylvania. The Susquehannock, who spoke an Iroquoian language, were based in more western regions of Pennsylvania from New York in the north to West Virginia in the southwest that included the Susquehanna River all the way to the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers near present day Pittsburgh.[15] European disease and constant warfare with several neighbors and groups of Europeans weakened these tribes, and they were grossly outpaced financially as the Hurons and Iroquois blocked them from proceeding west into Ohio during the Beaver Wars. As they lost numbers and land, they abandoned much of their western territory and moved closer to the Susquehanna River and the Iroquois and Mohawk tribes located more to the north. Northwest of the Allegheny River was the Iroquoian Petun.[16][17] They were fragmented into three groups during the Beaver Wars: the Petun of New York, the Wyandot of Ohio, and the Tiontatecaga of the Kanawha River in southern West Virginia. South of the Allegheny River was a nation known as Calicua.[18] They may have been the same as the Monongahela culture and little is known about them except that they were probably a Siouan culture. Archaeological sites from this time in this region are scarce.
17th centuryMain article: Province of Pennsylvania
William Penn, a Quaker and son of a prominent admiral, founded the colonial Province of Pennsylvania in 1681.In the 17th century, the Dutch and the English each claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America.[19][20][21] The Dutch were the first to take possession.[21] By June 3, 1631, the Dutch began settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware.[22] In 1638, Sweden established New Sweden Colony in the region of Fort Christina on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region, including parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but settled few colonists there.[23][24]
On March 12, 1664, King Charles II of England gave James, Duke of York a grant that incorporated all lands included in the original Virginia Company of Plymouth Grant and other lands. This grant was in conflict with the Dutch claim for New Netherland, which included parts of today's Pennsylvania.[25]
On June 24, 1664, the Duke of York sold the portion of his large grant that included present-day New Jersey to John Berkeley and George Carteret for a proprietary colony. The land was not yet in British possession, but the sale boxed in the portion of New Netherland on the West side of the Delaware River. The British conquest of New Netherland began on August 29, 1664, when New Amsterdam was coerced to surrender while facing cannons on British ships in New York Harbor.[26][27] This conquest continued, and was completed in October 1664, when the British captured Fort Casimir in what today is New Castle, Delaware.
The Peace of Breda between England, France, and the Netherlands confirmed the English conquest on July 21, 1667,[28][29] although there were temporary reversions.
On September 12, 1672, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch reconquered New York Colony/New Amsterdam, establishing three County Courts, which went on to become original Counties in present-day Delaware and Pennsylvania. The one that later transferred to Pennsylvania was Upland.[30] This was partially reversed on February 9, 1674, when the Treaty of Westminster ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War and reverted all political situations to the status quo ante bellum. The British retained the Dutch Counties with their Dutch names.[31] By June 11, 1674, New York reasserted control over the outlying colonies, including Upland, and the names started to be changed to British names by November 11, 1674.[32] Upland was partitioned on November 12, 1674, producing the general outline of the current border between Pennsylvania and Delaware.[33]
On February 28, 1681, Charles II granted a land charter[34] to Quaker leader William Penn to repay a debt of £16,000[35] (around £2,100,000 in 2008, adjusting for retail inflation)[36] owed to William's father. The transaction represents one of the largest land grants to an individual in history.[37] Penn proposed that the land be called New Wales, but there were objections to that name, so he recommended Sylvania (from the Latin silva: "forest, woods"). The King named it Pennsylvania (literally "Penn's Woods") in honor of Admiral Penn. The younger Penn was embarrassed at this name, fearing that people would think he had named it after himself, but King Charles would not rename the grant.[38] Penn established a government with two innovations that were much copied in the New World: the county commission and freedom of religious conviction.[37]
What had been Upland on the Pennsylvania side of the Pennsylvania-Delaware border was renamed as Chester County when Pennsylvania instituted their colonial governments on March 4, 1681.[39][40] Penn signed a peace treaty with Tamanend, leader of the Lenape, which began a long period of friendly relations between the Quakers and the Indians.[41] Additional treaties between Quakers and other tribes followed. The treaty of William Penn was never violated.[42][43][44]
18th centurySee also: Pennsylvania in the American RevolutionFurther information: George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, Philadelphia campaign, and Constitutional Convention (United States)
Shelter House in Emmaus, constructed in 1734 by Pennsylvania German settlers, is the oldest continuously occupied building structure in the Lehigh Valley and one of the oldest in Pennsylvania[45]
Independence Hall in Philadelphia, where the Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were adopted in 1776 and 1787-88, respectivelyBetween 1730 and when the Pennsylvania Colony was shut down by Parliament with the Currency Act in 1764, the Pennsylvania Colony made its own paper money to account for the shortage of actual gold and silver. The paper money was called Colonial Scrip.
The Colony issued bills of credit, which were as good as gold or silver coins because of their legal tender status. Since they were issued by the government and not a banking institution, it was an interest free proposition, largely defraying the expense of the government and therefore taxation of the people. It also promoted general employment and prosperity, since the government used discretion and did not issue excessive amounts that inflated the currency. Benjamin Franklin had a hand in creating this currency, whose utility, he said, was never to be disputed. The currency also met with "cautious approval" by Adam Smith.[46]
The University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia was founded by Benjamin Franklin in 1740, becoming one of the nine colonial colleges and the first college established in the state and one of the first in the nation; today, it is an Ivy League university that is ranked one the world's best universities.[47] Dickinson College in Carlisle was the first college founded after the states united.[47] Established in 1773, Dickinson was ratified five days after the Treaty of Paris on September 9, 1783, and was founded by Benjamin Rush and named after John Dickinson.
James Smith wrote that in 1763, "the Indians again commenced hostilities, and were busily engaged in killing and scalping the frontier inhabitants in various parts of Pennsylvania. This state was then a Quaker government, and at the first of this war the frontiers received no assistance from the state."[48] The ensuing hostilities became known as Pontiac's War.
After the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, delegate John Dickinson of Philadelphia wrote the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. The Congress was the first meeting of the Thirteen Colonies, called at the request of the Massachusetts assembly, but only nine of the 13 colonies sent delegates.[49] Dickinson then wrote Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, To the Inhabitants of the British Colonies, which were published in the Pennsylvania Chronicle between December 2, 1767, and February 15, 1768.[50]
When the Founding Fathers convened in Philadelphia in 1774, 12 colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress.[51] The Second Continental Congress, which also met in Philadelphia beginning in May 1775, authored and signed the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia,[52] but when Philadelphia fell to the British in the Philadelphia Campaign, the Continental Congress moved west, where it met at the Lancaster courthouse on Saturday, September 27, 1777, and then to York. In York, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, largely authored by Pennsylvania delegate John Dickinson, that formed 13 independent States[c] into a new union. Later, the Constitution was written, and Philadelphia was once again chosen to be cradle to the new nation.[53] The Constitution was drafted and signed at the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia, now known as Independence Hall, the same building where the Declaration of Independence was previously adopted and signed in 1776.[54]
On December 12, 1787, Pennsylvania was the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution,[55] five days after Delaware became the first. At the time, Pennsylvania was the most ethnically and religiously diverse of the thirteen colonies. Because a third of Pennsylvania's population spoke German, the Constitution was presented in German so those citizens could participate in the discussion about it. Reverend Frederick Muhlenberg, a Lutheran minister and the first Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, acted as chairman of Pennsylvania's ratifying convention.[56]
For half a century, the Pennsylvania General Assembly met at various places in the Philadelphia area before it began meeting regularly in Independence Hall in Philadelphia for 63 years.[57] However, events such as the Paxton Boys massacres of 1763 had made the legislature aware of the need for a central capital. In 1799, the General Assembly moved to the Lancaster Courthouse.[57]
19th centurySee also: Pennsylvania in the American Civil War, Battle of Gettysburg, Gettysburg Address, and Industrial Revolution in the United States
The Battle of Gettysburg, fought July 1–3, 1863 in Gettysburg, was the Civil War's deadliest battle but also is widely considered the war's turning point in the Union's ultimate victory. The battle is depicted in this 1887 Thure de Thulstrup painting, Battle of Gettysburg.
On November 19, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln (center, facing camera) arrived in Gettysburg and delivered the Gettysburg Address, considered one of the best-known speeches in American history.[58][59]The General Assembly met in the old Dauphin County Court House until December 1821[57] when the Federal-style Hills Capitol, named for Lancaster architect Stephen Hills, was constructed on a hilltop land grant of four acres set aside for a seat of state government in Harrisburg by the son and namesake of John Harris, Sr., a Yorkshire native who founded a trading post and ferry on the east shore of the Susquehanna River in 1705.[60] The Hills Capitol burned down on February 2, 1897, during a heavy snowstorm, presumably because of a faulty flue.[57]
The General Assembly met at a nearby Methodist Church until a new capitol could be built. Following an architectural selection contest that some alleged had been rigged, Chicago architect Henry Ives Cobb was asked to design and build a replacement building. However, the legislature had little money to allocate to the project. When they dubbed the roughly finished somewhat industrial Cobb Capitol building complete, the General Assembly refused to occupy the building. In 1901, political and popular indignation prompted a second contest that was restricted to Pennsylvania architects; Joseph Miller Huston of Philadelphia was chosen to design the present Pennsylvania State Capitol that incorporated Cobb's building into a magnificent public work, finished and dedicated in 1907.[57]
James Buchanan, a Franklin County native, served as the 15th U.S. president and was the first president to be born in Pennsylvania.[61] The Battle of Gettysburg, the major turning point of the American Civil War, took place near Gettysburg in July 1863.[62] An estimated 350,000 Pennsylvanians served in the Union Army forces, including 8,600 African American military volunteers.
The politics of Pennsylvania were for decades dominated by the financially conservative Republican-aligned Cameron machine, established by U.S. Senator Simon Cameron,[63] later the Secretary of War under President Abraham Lincoln. Control of the machine was subsequently passed on to Cameron's son J. Donald Cameron, whose ineffectiveness resulted in a transfer of power to the more shrewd Matthew Quay and finally to Boies Penrose.
The post-Civil War era, known as the Gilded Age, saw the continued rise of industry in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania was home to some of the largest steel companies in the world. Andrew Carnegie founded the Carnegie Steel Company in Pittsburgh and Charles M. Schwab founded Bethlehem Steel in Bethlehem. Other titans of industry, including John D. Rockefeller and Jay Gould, also operated in Pennsylvania. In the latter half of the 19th century, the U.S. oil industry was born in Western Pennsylvania, which supplied the vast majority of kerosene for years thereafter. As the Pennsylvania oil rush developed, Pennsylvania's oil boom towns, such as Titusville, rose and later fell. Coal mining, primarily in the state's Coal Region in the northeast region of the state, also was a major industry for much of the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1903, Milton S. Hershey began construction on a chocolate factory in Hershey, Pennsylvania; The Hershey Company grew to become the largest chocolate manufacturer in North America. Heinz Company was also founded during this period. These huge companies exercised a large influence on the politics of Pennsylvania; as Henry Demarest Lloyd put it, oil baron John D. Rockefeller "had done everything with the Pennsylvania legislature except refine it".[64] Pennsylvania created a Department of Highways and engaged in a vast program of road-building, while railroads continued to see heavy usage.[citation needed]
The growth of industry eventually provided middle class incomes to working-class households after the development of labor unions helped them gain living wages. However, the rise of unions also led to a rise of union busting with several private police forces springing up.[64] Pennsylvania was the location of the first documented organized strike in North America, and Pennsylvania was the location of two hugely prominent strikes, the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and the Coal Strike of 1902. The eight-hour day was eventually adopted, and the coal and iron police were banned.[65]
20th century
Bethlehem Steel in Bethlehem was one of the world's leading steel manufacturers for most of the 19th and 20th century. In 1982, however, it discontinued most of its operations, declared bankruptcy in 2001, and was dissolved in 2003.At the beginning of the 20th century, Pennsylvania's economy centered on steel production, logging, coal mining, textile production, and other forms of industrial manufacturing. A surge in immigration to the U.S. during the late 19th and early 20th centuries provided a steady flow of cheap labor for these industries, which often employed children and people who could not speak English from Southern and Eastern Europe.[citation needed] Thousands of Pennsylvanians volunteered during the Spanish–American War. Pennsylvania was an important industrial center in World War I, and the state provided over 300,000 soldiers for the military. On May 31, 1918, the Pittsburgh Agreement was signed in Pittsburgh to declare the formation of the independent state of Czechoslovakia with future Czechoslovak president Tomáš Masaryk.
In 1922, 310,000 Pennsylvania miners went on strike during the UMW General coal strike, shutting down most coal mines within the state.[66][67]
In 1923, President Calvin Coolidge established the Allegheny National Forest under the authority of the Weeks Act of 1911.[68] The forest is located in the northwest part of the state in Elk, Forest, McKean, and Warren Counties for the purposes of timber production and watershed protection in the Allegheny River basin. The Allegheny is the state's only national forest.[69]
Pennsylvania manufactured 6.6 percent of total U.S. military armaments produced during World War II, ranking sixth among the 48 states.[70] The Philadelphia Naval Shipyard served as an important naval base, and Pennsylvania produced important military leaders, including George C. Marshall, Hap Arnold, Jacob Devers, and Carl Spaatz. During the war, over a million Pennsylvanians served in the armed forces, and more Medals of Honor were awarded to Pennsylvanians than to individuals from any other state.[citation needed]
The Three Mile Island accident was the most significant nuclear accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history.[71][72] The state was hard-hit by the decline and restructuring of the steel industry and other heavy industries during the late 20th century. With job losses came heavy population losses, especially in the state's largest cities. Pittsburgh lost its place among the top ten most populous cities in the United States by 1950, and Philadelphia dropped to the fifth and currently the sixth-largest city after decades of being among the top three.
After 1990, as information-based industries became more important in the economy, state and local governments put more resources into the old, well-established public library system. Some localities, however, used new state funding to cut local taxes.[73] New ethnic groups, especially Hispanics and Latinos, began entering the state to fill low-skill jobs in agriculture and service industries. For example, in Chester County, Mexican immigrants brought the Spanish language, increased Catholicism, high birth rates, and cuisine when they were hired as agricultural laborers; in some rural localities, they made up half or more of the population.[74]
Stateside Puerto Ricans built a large community in the state's third-largest city, Allentown, where they comprise over 40% of the city's population as of 2000.[75]
In the 20th century, as Pennsylvania's historical national and even global leadership in mining largely ceased and its steelmaking and other heavy manufacturing sectors slowed, the state sought to grow its service and other industries to replace the jobs and economic productivity lost from the downturn of these industries. Pittsburgh's concentration of universities has enabled it to be a leader in technology and healthcare. Similarly, Philadelphia has a concentration of university expertise. Healthcare, retail, transportation, and tourism are some of the state's growing industries of the postindustrial era. As in the rest of the nation, most residential population growth has occurred in suburban rather than central city areas, although both major cities have had significant revitalization in their downtown areas.[76] Philadelphia anchors the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the country and one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world, and Pittsburgh is the center of the nation's 27th-largest metropolitan areas. As of 2020, the Lehigh Valley in Eastern Pennsylvania is the nation's 69th-largest metropolitan area.[77] Pennsylvania also has six additional metropolitan areas that rank among the nation's 200-most populous metropolitan areas. Philadelphia forms part of the Northeast megalopolis and is associated with the NorthEastern United States. Pittsburgh is part of the Great Lakes megalopolis and is often associated with the Midwestern United States and Rust Belt.
21st centuryFurther information: United Airlines Flight 93
The Stonycreek Township crash site of Flight 93, one of four planes hijacked in the September 11 attacks; the site is now a national memorial. Flight 93 passengers wrestled with al-Qaeda terrorist hijackers for control of the plane, preventing it from being flown into the White House or U.S. Capitol.[78]On September 11, 2001, during the terrorist attacks on the United States, the small town of Shanksville, Pennsylvania received worldwide attention after United Airlines Flight 93 crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township, 1.75 miles (2.82 km) north of the town, killing all 40 civilians and four Al-Qaeda hijackers on board. The hijackers had intended to crash the plane into either the United States Capitol or The White House.[78] After learning from family members via air phone of the earlier attacks on the World Trade Center, however, Flight 93 passengers on board revolted against the hijackers and fought for control of the plane, causing it to crash. It was the only one of the four aircraft hijacked that day that never reached its intended target and the heroism of the passengers has been commemorated.[79]
Beginning in 2003, the Tekko anime convention is held annually in Pittsburgh.[80] In October 2018, the Tree of Life – Or L'Simcha Congregation, a conservative Jewish synagogue, experienced the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting, which resulted in 11 fatalities.[81]
GeographyMain article: Geography of PennsylvaniaFurther information: List of counties in PennsylvaniaPennsylvania is 170 miles (274 km) north to south and 283 miles (455 km) east to west.[82] Of a total 46,055 square miles (119,282 km2), 44,817 square miles (116,075 km2) are land, 490 square miles (1,269 km2) are inland waters, and 749 square miles (1,940 km2) are waters in Lake Erie.[83] It is the 33rd-largest state in the United States.[84] Pennsylvania has 51 miles (82 km)[85] of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles (92 km)[8] of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean.
The boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line (39°43' N) to the south, Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80°31' W to the west, and the 42° N to the north, except for a short segment on the western end where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie. The state has five geographical regions: Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Erie Plain.
ClimateMain article: Climate of Pennsylvania
Köppen climate types in Pennsylvania
Autumn in North Branch Township in Wyoming County, October 2011Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, except for the southEastern corner, has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb). The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, Philadelphia, has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa).
Summers are generally hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, and snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches (250 cm) of snowfall annually, and the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year. The state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into autumn. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; generally speaking, these tornadoes do not cause significant damage.[86]
Monthly Average High and Low Temperatures For Various Pennsylvania Cities (in °F)CityJan.Feb.Mar.Apr.MayJun.Jul.Aug.Sep.Oct.Nov.Dec.Allentown36/2040/2249/2961/3972/4880/5884/6382/6175/5364/4152/3340/24Erie34/2136/2144/2756/3867/4876/5880/6379/6272/5661/4550/3738/27Harrisburg37/2341/2550/3362/4272/5281/6285/6683/6476/5664/4553/3541/27Philadelphia40/2644/2853/3464/4474/5483/6487/6985/6878/6067/4856/3945/30Pittsburgh36/2139/2349/3062/4071/4979/5883/6381/6274/5463/4351/3539/25Scranton33/1937/2146/2859/3870/4878/5682/6180/6072/5261/4149/33 article: List of municipalities in PennsylvaniaSee also: List of counties in Pennsylvania, List of cities in Pennsylvania, List of towns and boroughs in Pennsylvania, List of townships in Pennsylvania, List of county seats in Pennsylvania (by population), List of census-designated places in Pennsylvania, and List of populated places in PennsylvaniaCities in Pennsylvania include Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon, and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, and the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, and Easton in the central east, known as the Lehigh Valley. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston, Nantico*ke, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College is located in the central region. Williamsport is in the north-central region with York, Carlisle, and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the state. Altoona and Johnstown are in the state's west-central region.
The state's three-most populated cities, in order of size, are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Allentown.
Largest municipalities in PennsylvaniaSource:[7]RankNameCountyPop.RankNameCountyPop.1PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia1,603,79711LancasterLancaster58,039AllentownAllentownReadingReading2PittsburghAllegheny302,97112Millcreek TownshipErie54,0733AllentownLehigh125,84513Lower Paxton TownshipDauphin53,5014ReadingBerks95,11214Haverford TownshipDelaware50,4315ErieErie94,83115HarrisburgDauphin50,0996Upper DarbyDelaware85,68116YorkYork44,8007ScrantonLackawanna76,32817Wilkes-BarreLuzerne44,3288BethlehemNorthampton75,78118AltoonaBlair43,9639Lower Merion TownshipMontgomery63,63319Hempfield TownshipWestmoreland41,46610Bensalem TownshipBucks62,70720Penn HillsAllegheny41,059Adjacent states and provinceOntario (Province of Canada) (Northwest)New York (North and Northeast)New Jersey (East and Southeast)Delaware (Extreme Southeast)Maryland (South)West Virginia (Southwest)Ohio (West)DemographicsFurther information: List of people from PennsylvaniaHistorical populationCensusPop.Note%±1790434,373—1800602,36538.7%1810810,09134.5%18201,049,45829.5%18301,348,23328.5%18401,724,03327.9%18502,311,78634.1%18602,906,21525.7%18703,521,95121.2%18804,282,89121.6%18905,258,11322.8%19006,302,11519.9%19107,665,11121.6%19208,720,01713.8%19309,631,35010.5%19409,900,1802.8%195010,498,0126.0%196011,319,3667.8%197011,793,9094.2%198011,863,8950.6%199011,881,6430.1%200012,281,0543.4%201012,702,3793.4%202013,002,7002.4%2022 (est.)12,972,008−0.2%Source: 1910–2020[92]As of the 2020 U.S. census, Pennsylvania had a population of 13,011,844, up from 12,702,379 in 2010. Pennsylvania is the fifth-most populated state in the U.S. after California, Florida, New York, and Texas.[93] In 2019, net migration to other states resulted in a decrease of 27,718, and immigration from other countries resulted in an increase of 127,007. Net migration to Pennsylvania was 98,289. Migration of native Pennsylvanians resulted in a decrease of 100,000 people. 7.2% of the population was foreign-born as of 2021.[94]
According to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's 2022 Annual Homeless Assessment Report, there were an estimated 12,691 homeless people in Pennsylvania.[95][96]
Place of originAmong Pennsylvania residents, as of 2020, 74.5% were born in Pennsylvania, 18.4% were born in a different U.S. state, 1.5% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 5.6% were foreign born.[97] Foreign-born Pennsylvanians are largely from Asia (36.0%), Europe (35.9%), and Latin America (30.6%) with the remainder from Africa (5%), North America (3.1%), and Oceania (0.4%). The state's largest ancestry groups, expressed as a percentage of total people who responded with a particular ancestry for the 2010 census, were German 28.5%, Irish 18.2%, Italian 12.8%, African Americans 9.6%, English 8.5%, Polish 7.2%, and French 4.2%.[98][99]
Race and ethnicity
Ethnic origins of PennsylvaniansPennsylvania's Hispanic or Latino American population grew by 82.6% between 2000 and 2010, marking one of the largest increases in a state's Hispanic population. The significant growth of the Hispanic or Latino population is due to migration to the state mainly from Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, and to a lesser extent immigration from countries such as the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and various Central and South American nations and a wave of Hispanic and Latinos leaving New York City and New Jersey for safer and more affordable living. The Asian population swelled by almost 60%, fueled by Indian, Vietnamese, and Chinese immigration, and many Asian transplants moving to Philadelphia from New York. The rapid growth of this community has given Pennsylvania one of the largest Asian populations in the nation. The African American population grew by 13%, which was the largest increase in that population among the state's peers of New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Illinois, and Michigan.[100] Pennsylvania has a high in-migration of black and Hispanic people from other nearby states with the Eastern and south-central portions of the state seeing the bulk of the increases.[101][102]
The majority of Hispanic or Latino Americans in Pennsylvania are of Puerto Rican descent.[103][104] Most of the remaining Hispanic or Latino population is made up of Mexicans and Dominicans, and the majority of Hispanics and Latinos are concentrated in Philadelphia, the Lehigh Valley, and South Central Pennsylvania.[105] The Hispanic or Latino population is greatest in Bethlehem, Allentown, Reading, Lancaster, York, and around Philadelphia. As of 2010, an estimated 85% of all Hispanics or Latino Americans in Pennsylvania live within a 150-mile (240 km) radius of Philadelphia, with about 20% living in the city itself.
Among the state's black population, the vast majority in the state are African American. There are also a growing number of black residents of West Indian, recent African, and Hispanic or Latino origins.[106] Most black people live in the Philadelphia area, Pittsburgh, and South Central Pennsylvania. Non-Hispanic whites make up the majority of Pennsylvania; they are mostly descended from German, Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Italian, and English immigrants. Rural portions of South Central Pennsylvania are recognized nationally for their notable Amish communities. Wyoming Valley, including Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, has the highest percentage of white residents of any metropolitan area with a population of 500,000 or above in the U.S.; in Wyoming Valley, 96.2% of the population claim to be white with no Hispanic background. Pennsylvania's center of population is in Duncannon in Perry County.[107]
Racial and ethnic composition as of the 2020 censusRace and ethnicity[108]AloneTotalWhite (non-Hispanic)73.4%76.6%African American (non-Hispanic)10.5%11.8%Hispanic or Latino[d]—8.1%Asian3.9%4.5%Native American0.1%1.1%Pacific Islander0.02%0.1%Other0.4%1.3%Historical racial and ethnic composition to 2010Racial and ethnic composition1990[109]2000[110]2010[111]White88.5%85.4%81.9%Black9.2%10.0%10.9%Asian1.2%1.8%2.8%Native0.1%0.1%0.2%Native Hawaiians andother Pacific Islanders–––Other race1.0%1.5%2.4%Two or more races–1.2%1.9%Birth dataNote: Births in table do not add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of MotherSince 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin have not been collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.Age and povertyAs of the 2010 census, Pennsylvania had the fourth-highest proportion of elderly (65+) citizens in the nation at 15.4%, compared to a national average of 13.0%.[121] According to U.S. Census Bureau estimates, the state's poverty rate was 12.5% in 2017 compared to 13.4% for the U.S. as a whole.[122]
An Amish family riding in a traditional Amish buggy in Lancaster County; Pennsylvania has the largest Amish population of any state.As of 2010, 90.2% (10,710,239) of Pennsylvania residents age five and older spoke English at home as a primary language while 4.1% (486,058) spoke Spanish, 0.9% (103,502) spoke German including Pennsylvania Dutch, and 0.5% (56,052) spoke Chinese, which includes Mandarin of the population over the age of five. In total, 9.9% (1,170,628) of Pennsylvania's population age 5 and older spoke a mother tongue other than English.[123]
Pennsylvania Dutch languageMain article: Pennsylvania Dutch languagePennsylvania German, spoken by nearly one percent of Pennsylvania's population as of 2010, is often misleadingly called Pennsylvania Dutch. The term Dutch was used to mean German,[124] including the Netherlands, before the Latin name for them replaced it. When referring to the language spoken by the Pennsylvania Dutch people, Pennsylvania German, it means German". In fact, Germans, in their own language, call themselves Deutsch, (Pennsylvania German: "Deitsch"). Pennsylvania Dutch is a descendant of German in the West Central German dialect family and is closest to Palatine German. Pennsylvania German is still very vigorous as a first language among Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonites, principally in the Lancaster County and Berks County areas; it is almost extinct as an everyday language outside the plain communities, though a few words have passed into English usage.
ReligionMain article: Religion in PennsylvaniaReligious self-identification in Pennsylvania (April 2023 Franklin & Marshall College poll)[125]
Unaffiliated (32%) Protestantism (29%) Catholicism (24%) Other (14%)Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island had the most religious freedom.[126] Voltaire, writing of William Penn in 1733, observed: "The new sovereign also enacted several wise and wholesome laws for his colony, which have remained invariably the same to this day. The chief is, to ill-treat no person on account of religion, and to consider as brethren all those who believe in one God."[127] One result of this uncommon freedom was a wide religious diversity, which continues to the present.
Pennsylvania's population in 2010 was 12,702,379; of these, 6,838,440 (53.8%) were estimated to belong to some sort of organized religion. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) at Pennsylvania State University, the largest religious bodies in Pennsylvania by adherents were the Catholic Church with 3,503,028 adherents, the United Methodist Church with 591,734 members, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 501,974 members. Since 2014, among the state's religious population, 73% were Christian, according to Pew Research Center.[128] In 2020, the Public Religion Research Institute estimated 68% of the population identified with Christianity.[129] As of 2014, 47% of all Pennsylvanians identified as Protestants, making Protestantism far and away the most prominent religious affiliation among Pennsylvanians. Among all self-identified Christians in the state, however, 24% identified as Catholics, the most of any Christian religious affiliation. In April 2023, a Franklin & Marshall College poll found that a plurality of Pennsylvania residents were unaffiliated, with the rest predominately being Protestant or Catholic.[125]
Pennsylvania, especially in the Greater Pittsburgh area, has one of the largest communities of Presbyterians in the nation, the third highest by percentage of population and the largest outright in membership as Protestant Christians.[130] The American Presbyterian Church, with about 250,000 members and 1,011 congregations, is the largest Presbyterian denomination while the Presbyterian Church in America is also significant, with 112 congregations and approximately 23,000 adherents; the EPC has around 50 congregations, including the ECO, according to 2010 estimates. The fourth-largest Protestant denomination, the United Church of Christ, has 180,000 members and 627 congregations in the state. The American Baptist Churches USA, also referred to as the Northern Baptist Convention is based in King of Prussia.
Pennsylvania was the center state of the German Reformed denomination from the 1700s.[131] Bethlehem is one of the headquarters of the Moravian Church in the U.S. Pennsylvania also has a very large Amish population, second only to Ohio among U.S. states.[132] As of 2000, there was a total Amish population of 47,860 in Pennsylvania and an additional 146,416 Mennonites and 91,200 Brethren. The total Anabapist population including Bruderhof[133] was 232,631, about two percent of the population.[134] While Pennsylvania owes its existence to Quakers, and much of the historic character of Pennsylvania is ideologically rooted in the teachings of the Religious Society of Friends (as they are officially known), practicing Quakers are a small minority of about 10,000 adherents as of 2010.[135]
EconomySee also: List of Pennsylvania counties by per capita income
Pennsylvania unemployment rate, 1976–2021 US unemployment rateAs of 2021, Pennsylvania's gross state product (GSP) of $839.4 billion ranks 6th among all U.S. states, behind California, Texas, New York, Florida, and Illinois.[136] As of 2021, if Pennsylvania were an independent country, its economy would rank as the 22nd-largest in the world.[137] On a per capita basis, Pennsylvania's 2021 per capita GSP of $64,751 ranks 24th among the fifty states.[136] As of 2016, there were 5,354,964 people in employment in Pennsylvania with 301,484 total employer establishments. As of May 2020, the state's unemployment rate is 13.1%.[138][139]
The state has five manufacturing centers: Philadelphia in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, Erie in the northwest, Scranton-Wilkes-Barre in the northeast, and the Lehigh Valley in the east. Much of Pennsylvania is rural; this dichotomy affects state politics and the state economy.[140] Philadelphia is home to six Fortune 500 companies,[141] with more located in suburbs like King of Prussia; it is a leader in the financial[142] and insurance industries.
Pittsburgh is home to eight Fortune 500 companies, including U.S. Steel, PPG Industries, and H.J. Heinz.[141] In all, Pennsylvania is home to 50 Fortune 500 companies.[141] Hershey is home to The Hershey Company, one of the largest chocolate manufacturers in the world. Erie is home to GE Transportation, the nation's largest manufacturer of train locomotives. In Eastern Pennsylvania, the Lehigh Valley has become an epicenter for the growth of the U.S. logistics industry, including warehousing and the intermodal transport of goods.[143]
Like many U.S. states, Walmart is the largest private employer in Pennsylvania followed by the University of Pennsylvania, an Ivy League private research university in Philadelphia.[144][145] Pennsylvania is home to the oldest investor-owned utility company in the U.S., The York Water Company.
Year200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016GDP in mil. US$[146]506.505525.979559.876579.432573.964596.662615.411637.896659.792684.781708.402724.936GDP per capita in real 2009 US$[146]45,03545,02146,33046,86245,31246,38746,87247,54048,27849,15550,41850,997Real growth rate in %[147]1.3%0.5%3.3%1.5%−2.9%2.7%1.3%1.6%1.6%2.0%2.6%0.9%unemployment rate (in July)[148]4.9%4.7%4.4%5.2%8.2%8.3%8.0%7.9%7.3%5.8%5.3%5.5%BankingThe first nationally chartered bank in the U.S., the Bank of North America, was founded in 1781 in Philadelphia. After a series of mergers, the Bank of North America is now part of Wells Fargo. Pennsylvania is home to the first nationally-chartered bank under the 1863 National Banking Act. That year, the Pittsburgh Savings & Trust Company received a national charter and renamed itself the First National Bank of Pittsburgh as part of the National Banking Act. That bank is still in existence today as PNC and remains based in Pittsburgh. PNC is currently the state's largest bank and the nation's sixth-largest bank.
AgricultureMain article: Agriculture in PennsylvaniaPennsylvania ranks 19th overall among all states in agricultural production.[149] Its leading agricultural products are mushrooms, apples, Christmas trees, layer chickens, nursery, sod, milk, corn for silage, grapes (including juice grapes), and horses production. Pennsylvania ranks eighth in the nation in winemaking.[150]
The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture worked with private companies to establish "PA Preferred" as a way to brand agricultural products grown or made in the state.[151] The financial impact of agriculture in Pennsylvania[152] includes employment of more than 66,800 people employed by the food manufacturing industry and over $1.7 billion in food product export as of 2011.
GamblingMain article: Gambling in PennsylvaniaSee also: List of casinos in Pennsylvania
Rivers Casino, located on the Ohio River in Pittsburgh, one of Pennsylvania's 16 casinosCasino gambling was legalized in Pennsylvania in 2004. As of 2022, there are 16 casinos in the state.[153][154] Table games such as poker, roulette, blackjack, and craps were approved by the state legislature and signed into law in January 2010.
FilmSee also: Harrisburg in film and television, List of films and television shows shot in Pennsylvania, List of films shot in the Lehigh Valley, and List of films shot in PittsburghThe Pennsylvania Film Production Tax Credit began in 2004 and stimulated the development of a film industry in the state.[155]
GovernanceMain article: Government of PennsylvaniaSee also: Commonwealth (U.S. state)Pennsylvania has had five constitutions during its statehood:[156] 1776, 1790, 1838, 1874, and 1968. Before that the province of Pennsylvania was governed for a century by a Frame of Government, of which there were four versions: 1682, 1683, 1696, and 1701.[156] The capital of Pennsylvania is Harrisburg. The legislature meets there in the State Capitol.
In a 2020 study, Pennsylvania was ranked as the 19th hardest state for citizens to vote in.[157]
ExecutiveMain article: List of Governors of PennsylvaniaThe current Governor is Josh Shapiro. The other elected officials composing the executive branch are the Lieutenant Governor Austin Davis, Attorney General Michelle Henry, Auditor General Timothy DeFoor, and Pennsylvania Treasurer Stacy Garrity. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor run as a ticket in the general election and are up for re-election every four years during the midterm elections. The elections for Attorney General, Auditor General, and Treasurer are held every four years coinciding with a Presidential election.[158]See also: List of Pennsylvania state agenciesLegislativeMain article: Pennsylvania General Assembly
The Pennsylvania State Capitol in HarrisburgPennsylvania has a bicameral legislature that was established in the Pennsylvania Constitution, which was ratified in 1790. The original Frame of Government of William Penn had a unicameral legislature.[159] The General Assembly includes 50 Senators and 203 Representatives. Kim L. Ward is currently President Pro Tempore of the State Senate, Joe Pittman the Majority Leader, and Jay Costa the Minority Leader.[160] Joanna McClinton is Speaker of the House of Representatives, with Matthew Bradford as Majority Leader and Bryan Cutler as Minority Leader.[161] As of 2023, the Republicans hold the majority in the State Senate (28-22) and the Democrats in the State House (102-101). Pennsylvania is one of only two states that currently have divided party control of the state legislature.[162]
JudiciaryMain article: Unified Judicial System of PennsylvaniaPennsylvania is divided into 60 judicial districts.[163] With the exception of Philadelphia County, most have district justices and justices of the peace who preside over most preliminary hearings in felony and misdemeanor offenses, all minor (summary) criminal offenses, and small civil claims.[163] Most criminal and civil cases originate in the Courts of Common Pleas, which also serve as appellate court.[163] The Superior Court hears all appeals from the Courts of Common Pleas not expressly designated to the Commonwealth Court or Supreme Court. The Superior Court also has original jurisdiction to review probable cause governmental requests for warrants in wiretap surveillance.[163] The Commonwealth Court is limited to appeals from final orders of certain state agencies and certain designated cases from the Courts of Common Pleas.[163] The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the state's final appellate court. All judges in Pennsylvania are elected, and the chief justice of the state's Supreme Court is determined by seniority.[163]
Local government
Map of Pennsylvania's 67 countiesPennsylvania is divided into 67 counties.[164] Counties are further subdivided into municipalities that are either incorporated as cities, boroughs, or townships.[165] The most populous county in Pennsylvania and 24th-most populous county in the United States is Philadelphia County, which includes the city of Philadelphia, with a 2020 population of 1,603,797; the state's least populous county is Cameron with a population of 4,547.[101]
There are a total of 56 cities in Pennsylvania, which are classified by population as either first-class, second-class, or third-class cities.[164][166] Philadelphia, the state's largest city with a population exceeding 1.6 million, is Pennsylvania's only first-class city.[165] Pittsburgh (303,000) and Scranton (76,000) are second-class and second-class 'A' cities, respectively.[165] All of the state's remaining cities including Allentown, the state's third-largest city, and Reading, its fourth-largest, to Parker, the state's smallest city with a population of only 820, are designated as third-class cities.[167] First- and second-class cities are governed by a "strong mayor" form of mayor–council government, whereas third-class cities are governed by either a "weak mayor" form of government or a council–manager government.[165]
Pennsylvania boroughs are generally smaller in population than the state's cities, and most of the state's cities were incorporated as boroughs prior to being designated cities.[165] There are 958 boroughs in Pennsylvania, all of which are governed by the "weak mayor" form of mayor-council government.[164][165] The largest borough in Pennsylvania is State College (40,501) and the smallest is Centralia.
Townships are the third type of municipality in Pennsylvania and are classified as either first-class or second-class townships. There are 1,454 second-class townships and 93 first-class townships.[168] Second-class townships can become first-class townships if they have a population density greater than 300 inhabitants per square mile (120/km2) and a referendum is passed supporting the change.[168] Pennsylvania's largest township is Upper Darby Township (85,681), and the smallest is East Keating Township.
There is one exception to the types of municipalities in Pennsylvania: Bloomsburg was incorporated as a town in 1870 and is, officially, the only town in the state.[169] In 1975, McCandless Township adopted a home-rule charter under the name of "Town of McCandless", but is, legally, still a first-class township.[170] The state has 56 cities, 958 boroughs, 93 first-class townships, 1,454 second-class townships, and one town (Bloomsburg) for a total of 2,562 municipalities.
TaxationPennsylvania had the 15th-highest state and local tax burden in the nation as of 2012, according to the Tax Foundation.[171] Residents paid a total of $83.7 billion in state and local taxes with a per capita average of $4,589 annually. Residents share 76% of the total tax burden. Many state politicians have tried to increase the share of taxes paid by out-of-state sources. Suggested revenue sources include taxing natural gas drilling as Pennsylvania is the only state without such a tax on gas drilling.[172] Additional revenue prospects include trying to place tolls on interstate highways; specifically Interstate 80, which is used heavily by out of state commuters with high maintenance costs.[173]
Sales taxes provide 39% of Pennsylvania's state revenue; personal income taxes 34%; motor vehicle taxes about 12%, and taxes on cigarettes and alcoholic beverages 5%.[174] The personal income tax is a flat 3.07%. An individual's taxable income is based on the following eight types of income: compensation (salary); interest; dividends; net profits from the operation of a business, profession or farm; net gains or income from the dispositions of property; net gains or income from rents, royalties, patents and copyrights; income derived through estates or trusts; and gambling and lottery winnings (other than Pennsylvania Lottery winnings).[175]
Counties, municipalities, and school districts levy taxes on real estate. In addition, some local bodies assess a wage tax on personal income. Generally, the total wage tax rate is capped at 1% of income but some municipalities with home rule charters may charge more than 1%. Thirty-two of Pennsylvania's sixty-seven counties levy a personal property tax on stocks, bonds, and similar holdings. With the exception of the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, municipalities and school districts are allowed to enact a local earned income tax within the purview of Act 32. Residents of these municipalities and school districts are required to file a local income tax return in addition to federal and state returns. This local return is filed with the local income tax collector, a private collection agency appointed by a particular county to collect the local earned income and local services tax (the latter a flat fee deducted from salaried employees working within a particular municipality or school has its own local income taxation system. Philadelphia-based employers are required to withhold the Philadelphia wage tax from the salaries of their employees. Residents of Philadelphia working for an employer are not required to file a local return as long as their Philadelphia wage tax is fully withheld by their employer. If their employer does not withhold the Philadelphia wage tax, residents are required to register with the Revenue Department and file an Earnings Tax return. Residents of Philadelphia with self-employment income are required to file a Net Profits Tax (NPT) return, while those with business income from Philadelphia sources are required to obtain a Commercial Activity License (CAL) and pay the Business Income and Receipts Tax (BIRT) and the NPT. Residents with unearned income (except for interest from checking and savings accounts) are required to file and pay the School Income-tax (SIT).[180]
The complexity of Pennsylvania's local tax filing system has been criticized by experts, who note that the outsourcing of collections to private entities is akin to tax farming and that many new residents are caught off guard and end up facing failure to file penalties even if they did not owe any tax. Attempts to transfer local income tax collections to the state level (i.e. by having a separate local section on the state income tax return, currently the method used to collect local income taxes in New York, Maryland, Indiana, and Iowa) have been unsuccessful.[181]
State law enforcementSee also: Crime in PennsylvaniaThe Pennsylvania State Police is the chief law enforcement agency in the Pennsylvania.
PoliticsMain article: Politics of PennsylvaniaSee also: Elections in PennsylvaniaVoter registration totals as of August 28, 2023[182]PartyRegistered votersPercentageDemocratic3,886,57245.18%Republican3,433,80239.92%Unaffiliated/Minor parties/Other1,281,80514.90%Total8,602,179100.00%
2020 U.S. presidential election results by county in Pennsylvania Democratic RepublicanSince the latter half of the 20th century, Pennsylvania has been perceived as a powerful swing state, and winning Pennsylvania has since been deemed as essential to U.S. presidential candidates. Only twice between 1932 and 1988 (1932 and 1968, with Herbert Hoover and Hubert Humphrey, respectively) has a presidential candidate been able to win the White House without carrying Pennsylvania.
Between 1992 and 2016, Pennsylvania trended Democratic in presidential elections; Bill Clinton won the state twice by large margins and Al Gore won it by a slightly closer margin in 2000. In the 2004 presidential election, John F. Kerry beat President George W. Bush in Pennsylvania, 2,938,095 (51%) to 2,793,847 (48%). In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama defeated Republican John McCain in Pennsylvania, 3,276,363 (54%) to 2,655,885 (44%).
In the 2016 United States presidential election, however, Republican Donald Trump broke the Democratic streak in the state, winning by 2,970,733 (48%) votes to 2,926,441 (47%) votes.[183] The state returned to the Democratic column in 2020 by voting for Joe offeren over Trump, 3,458,229 (50%) to 3,377,674 (49%). The state holds 19 electoral votes.[184]
In recent national elections since 1992, Pennsylvania had leaned Democrat. The state voted for the Democratic ticket for president in every election between 1992 and 2012. During the 2008 election campaign, a recruitment drive saw registered Democrats outnumber registered Republicans by 1.2 million. However, Pennsylvania has a history of electing Republican U.S. Senators. From 2009 to 2011, the state was represented by two Democratic senators for the first time since 1947 after Republican Senator Arlen Specter switched party affiliation. In 2010, Republicans recaptured a U.S. Senate seat and a majority of the state's congressional seats, control of both chambers of the state legislature, and the governorship. Democrats won back the governorship, however, four years later in the 2014 election. It was the first time since a governor became eligible for reelection that an incumbent governor had been defeated in a reelection offer.
Historically, Democratic strength was concentrated in Philadelphia in the southeast, the Pittsburgh, and Johnstown areas in the southwest, and Scranton and Wilkes-Barre in the northeast. Republican strength was concentrated in the Philadelphia suburbs and the more rural areas in the state's central, northEastern, and western portions, some of which have long been considered among the nation's most conservative areas. Since 1992, however, the Philadelphia suburbs have swung Democratic; the brand of Republicanism there was traditionally moderate. In the 21st century, however, Pittsburgh suburbs, which historically had been Democrat strongholds, have swung more Republican.
Democratic political consultant James Carville once pejoratively described Pennsylvania as "Philadelphia in the east, Pittsburgh in the west, and Alabama in the middle", suggesting that political power in the state was based in its two largest cities, which have been reliably Democrat, offset by the state's large rural power base, which has proven equally reliably Republican. Political analysts and editorials refer to central Pennsylvania as the "T" in statewide elections. The state's three valleys (Delaware, Lehigh, and Wyoming Valleys) and Greater Pittsburgh generally vote Democrat, while the majority of the counties in the central part of the state vote Republican. As a result, maps showing the results of statewide elections invariably form a shape that resembles a "T".
Pennsylvania retains the death penalty. There is currently a gubernatorial hold on executions.[185]
Federal representationMain article: Pennsylvania's congressional districtsSee also: United States congressional delegations from PennsylvaniaPennsylvania's two U.S. Senators are Bob Casey Jr. and John Fetterman, both of whom are Democrats. Casey would seek reelection in 2024 should he seek another term. Fetterman was elected in 2022 to succeed retiring Republican Pat Toomey.
Pennsylvania has 17 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives as of 2023.[186]
EducationMain article: Education in PennsylvaniaPennsylvania has 500 public school districts, thousands of private schools, publicly funded colleges and universities, and over 100 private institutions of higher education.
Primary and secondary educationSee also: List of high schools in Pennsylvania and List of school districts in Pennsylvania
South Philadelphia High School on Broad Street in South Philadelphia in February 2010Under state law, school attendance in Pennsylvania is mandatory for children between ages eight and 17, or until graduation from an accredited high school, whichever is earlier, unless students are homeschooled.[187] As of 2005, 83.8% of Pennsylvania residents age 18 to 24 are high school graduates; Among residents age 25 and over, 86.7% have graduated from high school.
The following are the four-year graduation rates for students completing high school in 2016:[188]
CohortAll StudentsMaleFemaleWhiteHispanicBlackAsianSpecial Education% graduating86.0984.1488.1390.4872.8373.2291.2174.06Among Pennsylvania high school graduates as of 2009, 27.5% of them went on to obtain a bachelor's degree or higher degree.[189] State students consistently do well in standardized testing. In 2007, Pennsylvania ranked 14th in the nation in mathematics, 12th in reading, and 10th in writing for eighth grade students.[190] In 1988, the Pennsylvania General Assembly passed Act 169, which allows parents or guardians to homeschool their children as an alternative to compulsory school attendance. The law specifies varying geographic requirements and responsibilities on the part of parents and school districts.[191]
Higher educationSee also: List of colleges and universities in Pennsylvania
Benjamin Franklin statue on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania, an Ivy League institution in Philadelphia ranked one of world's top universities[192][193][194]The Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE), which includes 14 state-owned universities and colleges, is Pennsylvania's public university system. West Chester University is by far the largest of the 14 with nearly 15,000 students. The Commonwealth System of Higher Education is the organizing body of Pennsylvania's four state-related schools, which include Pennsylvania State University, Lincoln University, the University of Pittsburgh, and Temple University. There are 15 publicly funded two-year community colleges and technical schools in Pennsylvania that are separate from the PASSHE system, and many private two- and four-year technical schools, colleges, and universities.
Carnegie Mellon University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Pennsylvania, and the University of Pittsburgh are members of the Association of American Universities, an invitation-only organization of leading research universities. Lehigh University is a private research university located in Bethlehem. The Pennsylvania State University is Pennsylvania's land-grant university, Sea Grant College and, Space Grant College. The University of Pennsylvania, located in Philadelphia, is considered the first university in the United States and established the country's first medical school.
The University of Pennsylvania, founded in Philadelphia in 1740 by Benjamin Franklin, is Pennsylvania's only Ivy League university, and is the geographically most southern of the nation's eight Ivy League universities. The Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine (LECOM) is a private graduate school of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy with a main campus in Erie, and a branch campus located in Greensburg (with two other campuses outside of Pennsylvania). With over 2,200 enrolled medical students, the College of Osteopathic Medicine at LECOM is the largest medical school in the United States.[195][196][197][198] The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts is the first and oldest art school in the United States.[199] Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, now a part of University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, was the first pharmacy school in the United States.[200]
RecreationSee also: Gambling in Pennsylvania, List of festivals in Pennsylvania, and List of Pennsylvania state parks
Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom's Steel Force and Thunderhawk roller coasters in Allentown; Steel Force is the eighth-longest steel roller coaster in the world with a first drop of 205 feet (62 m) and a top speed of 75 miles per hour (121 km/h).[201]Pennsylvania is home to the nation's first zoo, the Philadelphia Zoo.[202] Other long-accredited AZA zoos include the Erie Zoo and the Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium. The Lehigh Valley Zoo and ZooAmerica are other notable zoos.
Pennsylvania is home to some of the most notable museums in the nation, including the Allentown Art Museum in Allentown, Carnegie Museums in Pittsburgh, the Philadelphia Museum of Art in Philadelphia, and several others. One unique museum is the Houdini Museum in Scranton, the only building in the world devoted to the legendary magician.[203] Pennsylvania is also home to the National Aviary, located in Pittsburgh.
All 121 state parks in Pennsylvania feature free admission.
Pennsylvania's notable amusem*nt parks include Conneaut Lake Park, Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom, Dutch Wonderland, DelGrosso's Amusem*nt Park, Great Wolf Lodge, Hersheypark, Idlewild Park, Kalahari Resorts Poconos, Kennywood, Knoebels, Lakemont Park, Sandcastle Waterpark, Sesame Place, and Waldameer Park. The largest indoor waterpark resort on the U.S. East Coast is Splash Lagoon in Erie.
The state's notable music festivals include Musikfest, the nation's largest free music festival held annually each August in Bethlehem,[204] the Philadelphia Folk Festival, Creation Festival, and Purple Door. The Great Allentown Fair, held annually at the Allentown Fairgrounds since the 19th century, is one of the nation's longest-running annual fairs.
There are nearly one million licensed hunters in Pennsylvania. White-tail deer, black bear, cottontail rabbit, squirrel, turkey, and grouse are common game species. Pennsylvania is considered one of the finest wild turkey hunting states in the nation, alongside Texas and Alabama. Sport hunting in Pennsylvania provides a massive boost for the state's economy. A report from The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, a legislative agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, reported that hunting, fishing, and furtaking generated a total of $9.6 billion statewide.
The Boone and Crockett Club reports that five of the ten largest black bear entries came from the state.[205] The state also has a tied record for the largest hunter shot black bear in the Boone and Crockett record books at 733 lb (332 kg) and a skull of 23 3/16, tied with a bear shot in California in 1993.[205] As of 2007, Pennsylvania has the second highest number of Boone and Crockett-recorded record black bears at 183, behind Wisconsin's 299.[205]
TransportationThe Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, abbreviated as PennDOT, is responsible for transport issues in Pennsylvania.
AirSee also: List of airports in Pennsylvania
Philadelphia International Airport, the busiest airport in the state and the 21st-busiest airport in the nation with nearly 10 million passengers annually as of 2021Pennsylvania has seven major airports: Philadelphia International, Pittsburgh International, Lehigh Valley International, Harrisburg International, Wilkes-Barre/Scranton International, Erie International, and University Park Airport. A total of 134 public-use airports are located in the state.[206]
Bus and coachIntercity bus service is provided between cities in Pennsylvania and other major points in the Northeast by Bolt Bus, Fullington Trailways, Greyhound Lines, Martz Trailways, Megabus, OurBus, Trans-Bridge Lines, and various Chinatown bus companies. In 2018, OurBus began offering service from West Chester, Malvern, King of Prussia, and Fort Washington to New York City.
Highways and roadsSee also: List of Interstate Highways in Pennsylvania, List of state routes in Pennsylvania, and Pennsylvania TurnpikePennDOT owns 39,861 miles (64,150 km) of the 121,770 miles (195,970 km) of roadway in the state, making it the fifth-largest state highway system in the United States.[207] The Pennsylvania Turnpike system is 535 miles (861 km) long, with the mainline portion stretching from Ohio to Philadelphia and New Jersey.[207] It is overseen by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. Another major east–west route is Interstate 80, which runs primarily in the northern tier of the state from Ohio to New Jersey at the Delaware Water Gap. Interstate 90 travels the relatively short distance between Ohio and New York through Erie County, in the extreme northwestern part of the state.
Primary north–south highways are Interstate 79 from its terminus in Erie through Pittsburgh to West Virginia, Interstate 81 from New York state through Scranton, Lackawanna County and Harrisburg to Maryland and Interstate 476, which begins 7 miles (11 km) north of the Delaware border, in Chester, Delaware County and travels 132 miles (212 km) to Clarks Summit, where it joins I-81. All but 20 miles (32 km) of I-476 is the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. The highway south of the Pennsylvania Turnpike is officially called the "Veterans Memorial Highway", but is commonly referred to colloquially as the "Blue Route".
RailSee also: List of Pennsylvania railroads and List of public transit authorities in Pennsylvania
Amtrak's Pennsylvanian on Horseshoe Curve in Logan TownshipThe SouthEastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) is the sixth-largest transit agency in the United States and operates the commuter, heavy and light rail transit, and transit bus service in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Pittsburgh Regional Transit is the 25th-largest transit agency and provides transit bus and light rail service in and around Pittsburgh.[208]
Intercity passenger rail transit is provided by Amtrak, with the majority of traffic occurring on the Keystone Service in the high-speed Keystone Corridor between Harrisburg and Philadelphia's 30th Street Station before heading north to New York City, as well as the Northeast Regional providing frequent high-speed service up and down the Northeast Corridor. The Pennsylvanian follows the same route from New York City to Harrisburg, but extends out to Pittsburgh. The Capitol Limited also passes through Pittsburgh, as well as Connellsville, on its way from Chicago to Washington, D.C.[206] Traveling between Chicago and New York City, the Lake Shore Limited passes through Erie once in each direction.[206] There are 67 short-line, freight railroads operating in Pennsylvania, the highest number in any U.S. state.[206] With more than four million inter-city rail passengers in 2018, Philadelphia's 30th Street Station is Amtrak's third busiest train station in the nation after Penn Station in Manhattan and Union Station in Washington, D.C.,[209] and North America's 12th-busiest train station overall.
WaterSee also: Port of Philadelphia and Port of PittsburghThe Port of Pittsburgh is the second-largest inland port in the United States and the 18th-largest port overall; the Port of Philadelphia is the 24th-largest port in the United States.[210] Pennsylvania's only port on the Great Lakes is located in Erie. The Allegheny River Lock and Dam Two is the most-used lock operated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers of its 255 nationwide.[211] The dam impounds the Allegheny River near Downtown Pittsburgh.
CultureSee also: Culture of Allentown, Pennsylvania; Culture of Philadelphia; Culture of Pittsburgh; LGBT culture in Philadelphia; and List of museums in PennsylvaniaFood
Pat's King of Steaks in South Philadelphia is widely credited with inventing the cheesesteak in 1933[212]
The Hershey Company in HersheyIn 2008, author Sharon Hernes Silverman wrote in the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review that Pennsylvania was the snack food capital of the world.[213] It leads all other states in the manufacture of pretzels and potato chips. In 1861, as the Civil War was beginning, Sturgis Pretzel House in Lititz was first to introduce the pretzel to American consumers. Two other Pennsylvania-based companies, Immergut Hand-Rolled Soft Pretzels in Intercourse and Snyder's of Hanover in Hanover, are leading national pretzel manufacturers. Two of the nation's three leading potato chip companies are based in Pennsylvania: Utz Brands, which started making chips in Hanover in 1921, and Wise Foods, which started making chips in Berwick the same year; the third, Frito-Lay is owned by Plano, Texas-based PepsiCo. Additional Pennsylvania-based companies, including Herr's Snacks in Nottingham, Martin's Potato Chips in Thomasville, Snyder's of Berlin, Middleswarth Potato Chips in Middleburg, and Troyer Farms Potato Products in Waterford, are popular chip manufacturers.
The Hershey Company in Hershey is a nearly $9 billion a year company and one of the world's leading manufacturers of chocolate; the company was founded in Hershey by Milton S. Hershey in 1894.[214][215] Gertrude Hawk Chocolates in Dunmore. Other notable companies include Just Born in Bethlehem, makers of Hot Tamales, Mike and Ikes, the Easter favorite marshmallow Peeps, and Boyer Brothers of Altoona, which manufacturers Mallo Cups. The pretzel company Auntie Anne's began as a market-stand in Downingtown, and now has corporate headquarters in Lancaster.[216] Traditional Pennsylvania Dutch foods include chicken potpie, ham potpie, schnitz un knepp (dried apples, ham, and dumplings), fasnachts (raised doughnuts), scrapple, pretzels, bologna, chow-chow, and Shoofly pie. Martin's Famous Pastry Shoppe, headquartered in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, specializes in potato bread, another traditional Pennsylvania Dutch food. D.G. Yuengling & Son, America's oldest brewery, has been brewing beer in Pottsville since 1829.
Among the regional foods associated with Philadelphia are cheesesteaks, hoagies, soft pretzels, Italian water ice, Irish potato candy, scrapple, Tastykake, and strombolis. In Pittsburgh, tomato ketchup was improved by Henry John Heinz from 1876 to the early 20th century. Famous to a lesser extent than Heinz ketchup is the Pittsburgh's Primanti Brothers Restaurant sandwiches, pierogies, and city chicken. Outside of Scranton, in Old Forge, there are dozens of Italian restaurants specializing in pizza made unique by thick, light crust, and American cheese. Erie also has its share of unique foods, including Greek sauce and sponge candy. Sauerkraut along with pork and mashed potatoes is a traditional meal on New Year's Day in Pennsylvania; its tradition began with the Pennsylvania Dutch who believe the meal leads to good luck in the new year to come.
SportsMain article: Sports in PennsylvaniaProfessional sports
The Philadelphia Eagles are presented with the Vince Lombardi Trophy after winning Super Bowl LII on February 4, 2018
Pittsburgh Steelers' fans waving the Terrible Towel, a tradition that dates back to 1975
Citizens Bank Park in South Philadelphia, home of the Philadelphia Phillies, the oldest continuous same-name, same-city franchise in American professional sports
NASCAR racing at Pocono Raceway in Long PondPennsylvania is home to eight major league professional sports teams: the Philadelphia Phillies and Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball, the Philadelphia 76ers of the NBA, the Philadelphia Eagles and Pittsburgh Steelers of the NFL, the Philadelphia Flyers and Pittsburgh Penguins of the NHL, and the Philadelphia Union of Major League Soccer. Among them, these teams have accumulated seven World Series championships (with the Pirates winning five and Phillies winning two), 16 National League pennants (with the Pirates winning nine and Phillies winning seven), three pre-Super Bowl era NFL championships (all won by the Eagles), seven Super Bowl championships (with the Steelers winning six and the Eagles one), two NBA championships (both won by the 76ers), and seven Stanley Cup championships (with the Penguins winning five and Flyers winning two).
With five professional sports teams and some of the most passionate sports fans in the nation, Philadelphia is often described as the nation's best sports city.[217][218]
In addition to its two Major League Baseball franchises, Pennsylvania is home to two Triple-A-level teams, the highest level of Minor League Baseball play. The Lehigh Valley IronPigs, affiliated with the Philadelphia Phillies, are based in Allentown, where they play at Coca-Cola Park. The Scranton/Wilkes-Barre RailRiders, affiliated with the New York Yankees, are based in Moosic, where they play at PNC Field.
Pennsylvania is home to four Double-A level baseball teams: the Altoona Curve, Erie SeaWolves, Harrisburg Senators, and Reading Fightin Phils. Pennsylvania has two collegiate summer baseball teams affiliated with the MLB Draft League: the State College Spikes and Williamsport Crosscutters. In independent baseball, the state has three teams, the Lancaster Barnstormers, Washington Wild Things, and York Revolution.
In addition to its two National Hockey League teams, Pennsylvania has three American Hockey League ice hockey teams: the Hershey Bears affiliated with the Washington Capitals, the Lehigh Valley Phantoms affiliated with the Philadelphia Flyers, and the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins affiliated with the Pittsburgh Penguins. It also has an ECHL-level ice hockey team, the Reading Royals, and an Arena Football League team, the Philadelphia Soul. These Pennsylvania-based developmental-level professional teams have accumulated 12 Triple-A and Double-A baseball league titles (Altoona Curve (1) Reading Fightin Phils (4), and Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Senators (6)), 3 ArenaBowl championships (Soul), and 11 Calder Cups (Bears).
I addition to the Philadelphia Union of Major League Soccer, Pennsylvania has two MLS Next Pro United States soccer teams, Philadelphia Union II and the Pittsburgh Riverhounds SC.[219] Both of the United Soccer League (USL). In the American Soccer Pyramid, the MLS takes the first tier while the USL-2 claims the third tier.
Since 1959, the Little League World Series has been held annually in August in South Williamsport near where Little League Baseball was founded in Williamsport.[220]
In professional golf, Arnold Palmer, one of the 20th century's most accomplished professional golfers, comes from Latrobe, and Jim Furyk, a current PGA player grew up near in Lancaster. PGA tournaments in Pennsylvania include the 84 Lumber Classic played at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort in Farmington and the Northeast Pennsylvania Classic played at Glenmaura National Golf Club in Moosi.
Philadelphia is home to LOVE Park across from City Hall, a popular skateboard location that hosted ESPN's X Games in 2001 and 2002.[221]
MotorsportsIn motorsports, the Mario Andretti dynasty of race drivers hails from Nazareth in the Lehigh Valley. Pennsylvania racetracks include Jennerstown Speedway in Jennerstown, Lake Erie Speedway in North East, Lernerville Speedway in Sarver, and Pocono Raceway in Long Pond, which is home to two NASCAR Cup Series races and an IndyCar Series race. The state is also home to Maple Grove Raceway, near Reading, which hosts major National Hot Rod Association-sanctioned drag racing events each year.
There are also two motocross race tracks that host a round of the AMA Toyota Motocross Championships in Pennsylvania. High Point Raceway is located in Mount Morris, Pennsylvania, and Steel City is located in Delmont, Pennsylvania.
Horse racing courses in Pennsylvania consist of The Meadows near Pittsburgh, Mohegan Pennsylvania in Wilkes-Barre, and Harrah's Philadelphia in Chester, which offer harness racing, and Penn National Race Course in Grantville, Parx Racing (formerly Philadelphia Park) in Bensalem, and Presque Isle Downs near Erie, which offer thoroughbred racing. Smarty Jones, the 2004 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes winner, had Philadelphia Park as his home course.
College sportsIn college football, three Pennsylvania universities compete in NCAA Division I, the highest level of sanctioned collegiate play in the sport: Penn State in the Big Ten Conference, Pitt in the Atlantic Coast Conference, and Temple in the American Athletic Conference.
Over their respective college football histories, Penn State claims two national championships (1982 and 1986) and seven undefeated seasons (1887, 1912, 1968, 1969, 1973, 1986, and 1994) and Pitt has won nine national championships (1915, 1916, 1918, 1929, 1931, 1934, 1936, 1937, and 1976) and had eight undefeated seasons (1904, 1910, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1920, 1937, and 1976).[222] Penn State plays its home games at Beaver Stadium, a 106,572-capacity stadium that is the second-largest stadium in the nation; the team is coached by James Franklin. Pitt plays its home games at Acrisure Stadium, a 68,400-capacity stadium it shares with the Pittsburgh Steelers; the team is coached by Pat Narduzzi. Over their respective histories, four additional Pennsylvania universities and colleges have won national college football championships: Lafayette in Easton (1896), Villanova in Villanova (2009), Penn in Philadelphia (1895, 1897, 1904, and 1908),[223] and Washington & Jefferson in Washington (1921).
In college basketball, five Philadelphia and Philadelphia-area universities, collectively known as the Big Five, have a rich tradition in NCAA Division I basketball. National titles in college basketball have been won by La Salle (1954), Temple (1938), Penn (1920 and 1921), Pitt (1928 and 1930), and Villanova (1985, 2016, and 2018).[224][225]
Pennsylvania has several universities and colleges known as national leaders in college wrestling. Penn State, coached by Cael Sanderson, has won ten NCAA Division I Wrestling Championships in its history, second most among all universities and colleges after Oklahoma State. Lehigh in Bethlehem has had 28 NCAA Division I individual champions over its history.
NicknamesSince 1802, Pennsylvania has been known as the Keystone State, which remains the state's most popular and widely-used nickname.[226] The nickname "Keystone State" originates with the agricultural and architectural term "keystone", and is based on the central role that Pennsylvania played geographically and functionally among the original Thirteen Colonies from which the nation was established, the important founding founding documents, including the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution, that were signed and ratified in Pennsylvania, and the early central role that Pennsylvania played in the nation's early manufacturing and agricultural economic development.[227][228][229]
Less commonly, Pennsylvania is sometimes referred to as the Coal State, the Oil State, and the Steel State, each developed in recognition of the important role these respective industries played in the state in the 19th and 20th centuries.[230] The State of Independence appears on several present road signs entering Pennsylvania from neighboring states.
Pennsylvania residents and those of surrounding states commonly refer to Pennsylvania by the state's initials, P.A. (pronounced "pee-ay").[231][self-published source][232][self-published source][233][better source needed][234]
While it is no longer in common use, Pennsylvania was historically sometimes referred to by the nickname Quaker State during the colonial era[235] based on the influential role that William Penn and other Quakers played in establishing the first frame of government constitution for the Province of Pennsylvania that guaranteed liberty of conscience, which was a reflection of Penn's knowledge of the hostility Quakers confronted when they opposed religious rituals, taking oaths, violence, war, and military service, and what they viewed as ostentatious peopleMain article: List of people from PennsylvaniaSister regionsSee also: List of sister cities in PennsylvaniaMatanzas Province, Cuba[240]Rhône-Alpes, FranceSee alsoFlagPennsylvania portalFlagUnited States portalIndex of Pennsylvania-related articlesOutline of PennsylvaniaNotesElevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.Pennsylvania is one of only four U.S. states to use the term "Commonwealth" in its official name, along with Massachusetts, Virginia, and Kentucky.At the time, Vermont has not yet seceded from New York State.



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